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Protobothrops flavoviridis (HALLOWELL, 1861)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesProtobothrops flavoviridis flavoviridis (HALLOWELL 1861)
Protobothrops flavoviridis tinkhami (GLOYD 1955) 
Common NamesHabu 
SynonymBothrops flavoviridis HALLOWELL 1861: 492
Trimeresurus riukiuanus HILGENDORF 1880: 118
Trimeresurus riukiuanus — FISCHER 1888: 20
Trimeresurus flavoviridis — BOULENGER 1890: 425
Lachesis flavoviridis — BOULENGER 1896: 550
Trimeresurus flavoviridis — STEJNEGER 1907: 475
Protobothrops flavoviridis - HOGE & ROMANO-HOGE 1983
Protobothrops flavoviridis — WELCH 1994: 103
Trimeresurus flavoviridis — MCDIARMID et al. 1999
Protobothrops flavoviridis — TU et al. 2000
Protobothrops flavoviridis — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Trimeresurus flavoviridis — GORIS & MAEDA 2004: 268
Protobothrops flavoviridis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 572

Protobothrops flavoviridis tinkhami (GLOYD 1955)
Trimeresurus flavoviridis tinkhami GLOYD 1955 
DistributionJapan (Okinawa, Amami)

Type locality: Amakarima Island [=Kerama-Retto Island, adjacent island of Okinawajima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago].  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: mutilated (Macomb, April 1855), lost fide Stejneger, 1907: 476.
Holotype: USNM 137285 [tinkhami] 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy partly after STEJNEGER 1907. The subspecies tinkhami is not recognized by GUMPRECHT et al. 2004.

Type species: Trimeresurus flavoviridis Hallowell, 1861 is the type species of the genus Protobothrops Hoge and Romano-Hoge, 1983:87.

Distribution: see map in Guo et a. 2016: 383 (Fig. 1). 
References
  • Barbour, Thomas 1909. Notes on Amphibia and Reptilia from Eastern Asia. Proc. New England zool. Club 4: 53-78, 2 plates - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1888. Über zwei von der Liukiu-Insel Okinawa stammende Schlangen. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 5: 18-22 - get paper here
  • Gloyd, Howard K. 1955. A new crotalid snake from Kume Shima, Riu Kiu Islands. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 10 (8): 123-134
  • Goris, R.C. & Maeda, N. 2004. Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Krieger, Malabar, 285 pp.
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407
  • GUO, PENG; QIN LIU, TAO WEN, RONG XIAO, MING FANG, GUANGHUI ZHONG, NGUYEN Q. TRUONG, FEI ZHU, ROBERT C. JADIN, CAO LI 2016. Multilocus phylogeny of the Asian Lance-headed pitvipers (Squamata, Viperidae, Protobothrops) Zootaxa 4093 (3): 382–390 - get paper here
  • Hallermann, J. 2007. The status of problematic snake types of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Reptilia, Serpentes). Mitt. Mus. Nat.kd. Berl., Zool. Reihe 83 (2): 160–165
  • Hallowell, E. 1861. Report upon the Reptilia of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under command of Capt. John Rogers, U. S. N. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12 [1860]: 480 - 510 - get paper here
  • Hilgendorf,F. 1880. Bemerkungen über die von ihm in Japan gesammelten Schlangen nebst Beschreibungen zweier neuer Schlangenarten. Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 1880 (8): 111-121 - get paper here
  • Hoge, A. R. & S. A. R. W. L. Romano-Hoge 1983. Notas sobre micro e ultra-estructura de “Oberhäutchen” em Viperoidea. Mem. Inst. Butantan 44/45: 81-118 [1980/81] - get paper here
  • Koba, Kazuo;Morimoto, Hiroki 1978. The nighttime habitat of Trimeresurus flavoviridis (Serpentes: Viperidae) on Amami-oshima and Kume-jima of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Bulletin of Ginkyo College of Medical Technology 3: 17-20, plates 2-7
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Lillywhite, Harvey B. 2014. How Snakes Work: Structure, Function and Behavior of the World's Snakes. Oxford University Press, New York, 256 pp
  • Matsubara, Kazumi;Chizuko Nishida, Yoichi Matsuda, and Yoshinori Kumazawa 2016. Sex chromosome evolution in snakes inferred from divergence patterns of two gametologous genes and chromosome distribution of sex chromosome-linked repetitive sequences. Matsubara et al. Zoological Letters (2016) 2:19 - get paper here
  • Mori,M. 1982. Japans Schlangen, Vols. 1-3 (80, 102, 123 pp.). Tokyo (Igaku-Shoin Ltd.) [bilingual edition in German and Japanese]
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, N.; Barabanov, A.; Ryabov, S. & Khalikov, R. 2002. Diversity of vipers (Azemiopinae, Crotalinae) in East, Southeast, and South Asia: annotated checklist and natural history data (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 23: 177-218
  • Orlov, Nikolai L.; Sergei A. Ryabov, and Nguyen Thien Tao 2009. Two New Species of Genera Protobothrops Hoge et Romano-Hoge, 1983 and Viridovipera Malhotra et Thorpe, 2004 (Ophidia: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from Karst Region in Northeastern Vietnam. Part I. Description of a New Species of Protobothrops Genus. Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (1): 69-82 - get paper here
  • PAN, Hujun; Basundhara CHETTRI, Daode YANG, Ke JIANG, Kai WANG, Liang ZHANG and Gernot VOGEL 2013. A New Species of the Genus Protobothrops (Squamata: Viperidae) from Southern Tibet, China and Sikkim, India. Asian Herpetological Research 4 (2): 109–115 - get paper here
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Sclater, J.A. 1950. Bionomic notes on some reptiles form Okinawa Shima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 3: 113-116
  • Shibata, Hiroki; Takahito Chijiwa, Shosaku Hattori, Koki Terada, Motonori Ohno, Yasuyuki Fukumaki 2016. The taxonomic position and the unexpected divergence of the Habu viper, Protobothrops among Japanese subtropical islands, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.04.027 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Tu, M.-C. et al. 2000. Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Biogeography of the Oriental Pitvipers of the Genus Trimeresurus (Reptilia: Viperidae: Crotalinae): A Molecular Perspective. Zoological Science 17: 1147–1157 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • YANG, JIAN-HUAN; NIKOLAI L. ORLOV & YING-YONG WANG 2011. A new species of pitviper of the genus Protobothrops from China (Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2936: 59–68 - get paper here
  • Yokoyama, Fumiko;Masumitu, Masaho;Yoshida, Hiroki 1995. A method for distinction of sex of habu, Trimeresurus flavoviridis. The Snake 27 (1): 61-63
 
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