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Protobothrops jerdonii (GÜNTHER, 1875)

IUCN Red List - Protobothrops jerdonii - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesProtobothrops jerdonii jerdonii (GÜNTHER 1875)
Protobothrops jerdonii bourreti (KLEMMER 1963)
Protobothrops jerdonii xanthomelas (GÜNTHER 1889) 
Common NamesJerdon’s pitviper (bourreti: Bourret’s pitviper, xanthomelas: Red spotted pitviper) 
SynonymTrimeresurus jerdonii GÜNTHER 1875
Trimeresurus xanthomelas GÜNTHER 1889: 221
Lachesis jerdoni — VENNING 1910: 775
Lachesis melli VOGT 1922
Trimeresurus jerdoni — SMITH 1943: 510
Protobothrops jerdonii — HOGE & ROMANO-HOGE 1983
Protobothrops jerdonii — TU et al. 2000
Trimeresurus jerdoni — SHARMA 2004
Protobothrops jerdonii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 572

Protobothrops jerdonii bourreti (KLEMMER 1963)
Trimeresurus jerdonii meridionalis BOURRET 1935: 248 (non T. monticola meridionalis BOURRET 1935)
Trimeresurus jerdonii bourreti KLEMMER 1963 (nom. nov.)
Protobothrops jerdonii bourreti — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Protobothrops jerdonii bourreti — ORLOV et al. 2009

Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonii (GÜNTHER 1875)
Trimeresurus jerdonii GÜNTHER 1875
Lachesis jerdonii BOULENGER 1896
Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonii — WELCH 1994: 103
Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonii — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004

Protobothrops jerdonii xanthomelas (GÜNTHER 1889)
Trimeresurus xanthomelas GÜNTHER 1889
Trimeresurus jerdonii xanthomelas MASLIN 1942
Protobothrops jerdonii xanthomelas — WELCH 1994: 103
Protobothrops jerdonii xanthomelas — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Protobothrops jerdonii xanthomelas — ORLOV et al. 2009
Protobothrops jerdonii xanthomelas — LOVE 2010 
DistributionIndia (Assam; Arunachal Pradesh (Siddi (= Gandhigram) – Changlang district) [A. Captain, pers. Comm.] and many other regions), Nepal,
N Myanmar (= Burma), N Vietnam (Yen Bai etc.),
SW China (east to Guangxi and Hubei, north to Henan and west to Gansu; Yunnan, Sichuan), elevation 1200-1470 m

jerdonii: India (Assam), Myanmar (= Burma), China (Yunnan)
meridionalis: N Vietnam; Type locality: Khasi Hills, India.

xanthomelas: China (Sichuan, Hupeh), India (Arunachal Pradesh) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
ReproductionOnly member of Protobothrops that is viviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: BMNH–68) 

Subspecies: The subspecies meridionalis is not recognized by GUMPRECHT et al. 2004.

Distribution: Possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012). See map in Guo et a. 2016: 383 (Fig. 1). 
EtymologyNamed after Thomas Claverhill Jerdon (1811-1872), British physician, zoologist, and botanist who became an Assistant Surgeon in the East India Company. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Günther,A. 1875. Second report on collections of Indian Reptiles obtained bv the British Museum. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1875: 224-234 - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1889. Third contribution to ourknowledge of reptiles and fishes from the Upper Yangtsze-Kiang. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 4 (21): 218-229 - get paper here
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407
  • Guo, Peng; Lu, Shunqing; Huang, Song; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Ermi 2006. Hemipenial morphology of five Asian pitvipers, with a discussion on their taxonomy. Amphibia-Reptilia 27 (1): 19-23 - get paper here
  • GUO, PENG; QIN LIU, TAO WEN, RONG XIAO, MING FANG, GUANGHUI ZHONG, NGUYEN Q. TRUONG, FEI ZHU, ROBERT C. JADIN, CAO LI 2016. Multilocus phylogeny of the Asian Lance-headed pitvipers (Squamata, Viperidae, Protobothrops) Zootaxa 4093 (3): 382–390 - get paper here
  • Hoge, A. R. & S. A. R. W. L. Romano-Hoge 1983. Notas sobre micro e ultra-estructura de “Oberhäutchen” em Viperoidea. Mem. Inst. Butantan 44/45: 81-118 [1980/81] - get paper here
  • Huang, Xin; Liang Zhang, Xiaoxue Zhu, Tao Pan, Hui Wang, and Baowei Zhang 2013. Mitochondrial genome of Protobothrops jerdonii (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Mitochondrial DNA 24 (3): 225-227 - get paper here
  • Inger R F; Zhao E; Bradley Shaffer H; Guanfu Wu 1990. Report on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from Sichuan, China. Fieldiana: Zoology (No. 58) : i-iii, 1-24 - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Klemmer,K. 1963. Liste der rezenten Giftschlangen. Elapidae, Hydropheidae [sic], Viperidae und Crotalidae. In: Die Giftschlangen der Erde. Behringwerk-Mitteilungen, spec. Suppl., Marburg.
  • Le, Dzung Trung; Anh Ngoc Dao, Dat Thang Pham, Thomas Ziegler, and Truong Quang Nguyen 2018. New records and an updated list of snakes from Yen Bai Province, Vietnam Herpetology Notes 11: 101-108 - get paper here
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Guinevere O.U. Wogan; Michelle S. Koo; George R. Zug; Rhonda S. Lucas and Jens V. Vindum 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407–462 - get paper here
  • Lillywhite, Harvey B. 2014. How Snakes Work: Structure, Function and Behavior of the World's Snakes. Oxford University Press, New York, 256 pp
  • Love, B. 2010. Die China-Connection. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (82): 14-15 - get paper here
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, N.; Barabanov, A.; Ryabov, S. & Khalikov, R. 2002. Diversity of vipers (Azemiopinae, Crotalinae) in East, Southeast, and South Asia: annotated checklist and natural history data (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 23: 177-218
  • Orlov, Nikolai L.; Sergei A. Ryabov, and Nguyen Thien Tao 2009. Two New Species of Genera Protobothrops Hoge et Romano-Hoge, 1983 and Viridovipera Malhotra et Thorpe, 2004 (Ophidia: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from Karst Region in Northeastern Vietnam. Part I. Description of a New Species of Protobothrops Genus. Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (1): 69-82 - get paper here
  • PAN, Hujun; Basundhara CHETTRI, Daode YANG, Ke JIANG, Kai WANG, Liang ZHANG and Gernot VOGEL 2013. A New Species of the Genus Protobothrops (Squamata: Viperidae) from Southern Tibet, China and Sikkim, India. Asian Herpetological Research 4 (2): 109–115 - get paper here
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Tu, M.-C. et al. 2000. Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Biogeography of the Oriental Pitvipers of the Genus Trimeresurus (Reptilia: Viperidae: Crotalinae): A Molecular Perspective. Zoological Science 17: 1147–1157 - get paper here
  • Venning, F.E.W. 1910. Further notes on snakes from the Chin Hills. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 20: 770-775 - get paper here
  • Wall, F. 1906. The poisonous snakes of India and how to recognize them, Part II. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 299-334 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Whitaker, Romulus<br />and Ashok Captain 2004. Snakes of India. Draco Books, 500 pp., reprinted 2007 - get paper here
  • YANG, JIAN-HUAN; NIKOLAI L. ORLOV & YING-YONG WANG 2011. A new species of pitviper of the genus Protobothrops from China (Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2936: 59–68 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
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