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Protobothrops mucrosquamatus (CANTOR, 1839)

IUCN Red List - Protobothrops mucrosquamatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesBrown spotted pitviper 
SynonymTrigonocephalus mucrosquamatus CANTOR 1839: 32
Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus — GÜNTHER 1864: 390
Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus — FISCHER 1886: 66
Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus — BOULENGER 1890: 428
Lachesis mucrosquamatus — BOULENGER 1896: 552
Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus — STEJNEGER 1907: 467
Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus — SMITH 1943: 507
Protobothrops mucrosquamatus — HOGE & ROMANO-HOGE 1983
Protobothrops mucrosquamatus — KRAUS et al. 1996
Protobothrops mucrosquamatus — Tu et al. 2000
Protobothrops mucrosquamatus — ZIEGLER 2002: 282
Protobothrops mucrosquamatus — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus — SHARMA 2004
Protobothrops mucrosquamatus — GUO et al. 2006
Protobothrops mucrosquamatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 573 
DistributionBangladesh, India (Assam; Arunachal Pradesh (Itanagar – Papum Pare district) [A. Captain, pers. Comm.], Mizroam and many other regions), Myanmar (= Burma), N/C Vietnam, Laos,
S China (from Yunnan north to Gansu in the west, east to Zhejiang; Fukien, Kwangsi, Kwangtun, Sichuan, Hainan), Taiwan

Type locality: Naga Hills, Assam, India. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: Unknown; original description probably based on colored drawing [no. 18] in Bodleian Library, Oxford) (fide LEVITON et al. 2003). 
CommentVenomous!

DIAGNOSIS (DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS).— Scales in 25 longitudinal rows at midbody; scales on upper surface of head, small, each scale keeled posteriorly; internasals 5–10 times size of adjacent scales, separated by 3–4 scales; supraoculars, long, narrow, undivided, 14–16 small interocular scales in line between them; 2 scales on line between upper preocular and nasal; 9–11 upper labials, first upper labial separated from nasal by suture; 2–3 small scales between upper labials and subocular; 2–3 rows of temporal scales above upper labials smooth, above those scales keeled; ventrals 200–218; subcaudals 76–91, all paired; grayish or olive brown above, with dorsal series of large brown, black-edged spots or blotches, and a lateral series of smaller spots; head above brownish, below whitish; belly whitish but heavily powdered with light brown; tail brownish (possibly pink in life [fide Smith 1943:507]), with series of dark dorsal spots; hemipenes spinose. Total length males 1122 mm, females 1160; tail length males 195 mm, females 205 mm. [after LEVITON 2003]

Distribution: Possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012). See map in Guo et a. 2016: 383 (Fig. 1). 
References
  • Barbour, Thomas 1909. Notes on Amphibia and Reptilia from Eastern Asia. Proc. New England zool. Club 4: 53-78, 2 plates - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Cantor, T. E. 1839. Spicilegium serpentium indicorum [part 1]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1839: 31-34 - get paper here
  • Cantor,T. 1840. Spicilegium Serpentium Indicorum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1) 4: 271-279 - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1886. Herpetologische Notizen. Abh. Geb. Naturw. Hamb. 9: 51-67 (1-19) - get paper here
  • Gawor, A., C. T. Pham, T. Q. Nguyen, T. T. Nguyen, A. Schmitz & T. Ziegler 2016. The herpetofauna of the Bai Tu Long National Park, northeastern Vietnam. Salamandra 52 (1): 23-41 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407
  • Guo, Peng; Lu, Shunqing; Huang, Song; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Ermi 2006. Hemipenial morphology of five Asian pitvipers, with a discussion on their taxonomy. Amphibia-Reptilia 27 (1): 19-23 - get paper here
  • GUO, PENG; QIN LIU, TAO WEN, RONG XIAO, MING FANG, GUANGHUI ZHONG, NGUYEN Q. TRUONG, FEI ZHU, ROBERT C. JADIN, CAO LI 2016. Multilocus phylogeny of the Asian Lance-headed pitvipers (Squamata, Viperidae, Protobothrops) Zootaxa 4093 (3): 382–390 - get paper here
  • Herrmann, H.-W.; Ziegler, T.; Malhotra, A.; Thorpe, R.S. & Parkinson, C.L. 2004. Redescription and systematics of Trimeresurus cornutus (Serpentes: Viperidae)based on morphology and molecular data. Herpetologica 60 (2): 211-221 - get paper here
  • Kraus, Fred; Mink, Daniel G. & Brown, Wesley M. 1996. Crotaline intergeneric relationships based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Copeia 1996 (4): 763-773 - get paper here
  • Lalremsanga, H. T., Lalbiakzuala and Lalrinsanga 2017. Geographic Distribution: Protobothrops mucrosquamatus (Brown Spotted Pitviper) Herpetological Review 48 (1): 131 - get paper here
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Guinevere O.U. Wogan; Michelle S. Koo; George R. Zug; Rhonda S. Lucas and Jens V. Vindum 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407–462
  • Maslin, T. Paul 1942. Evidence for the separation of the crotalid genera Trimeresurus and Bothrops, with a key to the genus Trimeresurus. Copeia 1942 (1): 18-24 - get paper here
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, N.; Barabanov, A.; Ryabov, S. & Khalikov, R. 2002. Diversity of vipers (Azemiopinae, Crotalinae) in East, Southeast, and South Asia: annotated checklist and natural history data (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 23: 177-218
  • Orlov, Nikolai L.; Sergei A. Ryabov, and Nguyen Thien Tao 2009. Two New Species of Genera Protobothrops Hoge et Romano-Hoge, 1983 and Viridovipera Malhotra et Thorpe, 2004 (Ophidia: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from Karst Region in Northeastern Vietnam. Part I. Description of a New Species of Protobothrops Genus. Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (1): 69-82 - get paper here
  • PAN, Hujun; Basundhara CHETTRI, Daode YANG, Ke JIANG, Kai WANG, Liang ZHANG and Gernot VOGEL 2013. A New Species of the Genus Protobothrops (Squamata: Viperidae) from Southern Tibet, China and Sikkim, India. Asian Herpetological Research 4 (2): 109–115 - get paper here
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Song-Mingtao 1987. Survey of the reptiles of southern Shaanxi. Acta Herpetologica Sinica 6 (1): 59-64 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, L. 1910. The batrachians and reptiles of Formosa. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 38: 91-114 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Stuart, B.L. & Heatwole, H. 2008. Country records of snakes from Laos. Hamadryad 33: 97–106 - get paper here
  • Tu, M.-C. et al. 2000. Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Biogeography of the Oriental Pitvipers of the Genus Trimeresurus (Reptilia: Viperidae: Crotalinae): A Molecular Perspective. Zoological Science 17: 1147–1157 - get paper here
  • Wall, F. 1906. The poisonous snakes of India and how to recognize them, Part II. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 299-334 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • YANG, JIAN-HUAN; NIKOLAI L. ORLOV & YING-YONG WANG 2011. A new species of pitviper of the genus Protobothrops from China (Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2936: 59–68 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • ZHONG, Guanghui; Qin LIU, Cao LI, Peihao PENG and Peng GUO 2017. Sexual Dimorphism and Geographic Variation in the Asian Lance-headed Pitviper Protobothrops mucrosquamatus in the Mainland China Asian Herpetological Research 8 (2): 118-122, DOI:10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.160011 - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T. 2002. Die Amphibien und Reptilien eines Tieflandfeuchtwald-Schutzgebietes in Vietnam. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 342 pp. - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T.; V.N. Thanh, L.K. Quyet, N. G. Truong, J. Hallermann; L.V. Khoi & T.M. Hoang 2006. Neue Verbreitungsnachweise einiger weniger bekannter vietnamesischer Amphibien und Reptilien. Sauria 28 (2): 29-40 - get paper here
 
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