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Psammophylax tritaeniatus (GÜNTHER, 1868)

IUCN Red List - Psammophylax tritaeniatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLamprophiidae, Psammophiinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesPsammophylax tritaeniatus tritaeniatus (GÜNTHER 1868)
Psammophylax tritaeniatus subniger LAURENT 1956
Psammophylax tritaeniatus vanoyei LAURENT 1956 
Common NamesE: Three-lined Grass Snake, Striped Skaapsteker
G: Gestreifter Shaapsteker 
SynonymRhagerrhis tritaeniatus GÜNTHER 1868: 423
Rhagerhis tritaeniata — BOCAGE 1896: 112
Psammophylax tritaeniatus fitzgeraldi BROADLEY 1960
Psammophylax tritaeniatus — AUERBACH 1987: 163
Psammophylax tritaeniatus — BROADLEY 1998
Psammophylax tritaeniatus — BROADLEY et al. 2003: 154
Psammophylax tritaeniatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 594
Psammophylax tritaeniatus — BATES et al. 2014: 382
Psammophylax tritaeniatus — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 443

Psammophylax tritaeniatus subniger LAURENT 1956: 237

Psammophylax tritaeniatus tritaeniatus (GÜNTHER 1868)
Rhagerrhis tritaeniatus GÜNTHER 1868: 423
Psammophylax tritaeniatus — PETERS 1869: 661
Coronella tritaeniata GÜNTHER 1881: 329
Trimerorhinus tritaeniatus — BOULENGER 1896: 139 (part.)
Trimerorhinus tritaeniatus — ANGEL 1925
Cerastes tritaeniatus tritaeniatus — MERTENS 1930: 14
Psammophylax tritaeniatus tritaeniatus — BROADLEY 1959
Psammophylax tritaeniatus tritaeniatus — FITZSIMONS 1966

Psammophylax tritaeniatus vanoyei LAURENT 1956: 240 
DistributionNE Namibia, N Botswana, Zimbabwe, NE Republic of South Africa, Angola, S Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, S Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Zambia, Mozambique

Type locality: Southern Africa.

subniger: SE Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Burundi, Rwanda; Type locality: “Kipiri, 2000 m [elevation], plateau des Marungu, Terr. de Baudouinville, Tanganika”

vanoyei: NE Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire); Type locality: “Blukwa, Terr. de Djugu, Ituri”  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesType: BMNH 1946.1.2.78 (and possibly additional specimens).
Holotype: MRAC (was RGMC) 18597, male [subniger]
Holotype: MRAC (was RGMC) 17001, male [vanoyei] 
Diagnosis 
CommentP. t. festivus, subniger, vanoyei fide Jirka Schmidt (pers. comm.). The status of the subspecies seems unclear.

Synonymy partly after FITZSIMONS 1966 and Branch & Bates 2018. 
Etymology 
References
  • Angel, Fernand 1925. Résultats Scientifiques. Vertebrata. Reptiles et Batraciens. [Mabuia (Mabuiopsis) jeanneli, Lygosoma graueri quinquedigitata, Ablepharus massaiensis]. In: Voyage de Ch. Alluaud et R. Jeannel en Afrique Orientale (1911-1912). - Paris, 2: 1-63.
  • Auerbach, R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Bates, Michael F. and Rick Nuttall. 2013. A case of death-feigning in the Stripted Grass Snake Psammophylax tritaeniatus (Günther), with a review on the occurrence of this phenomenon in southern and eastern African snakes. African Herp News (60): 5-9
  • Bauer, Aaron M.; Branch, William R. & Haacke, Wulf D. 1993. The herpetofauna of the Kamanjab area and adjacent Damaraland, Namibia. Madoqua (Windhoek) 18 (2): 117-145.
  • Bocage, J. V. Barboza du. 1896. Mammiferos, aves e reptis da Hanha, no sertào de Benguella. Jornal de Sciencias Mathematicas, Physîcas e Naturaes, Lisboa (2) 14: 105-114.
  • Bocage, J.V.B. de 1897. Mammiferos, aves e reptis da Hanha, no sertào de Benguella. (Segunda lista). Jornal de Sciencias Mathematicas, Physîcas e Naturaes, Lisboa (2) 14: 207-211
  • Branch, W.R. 2008. PROPOSED KALUKUNDI MINE (DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO) - TERRESTRIAL FAUNA. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT (FINAL REPORT). A specialist report for Envirolution Consulting (Pty) Ltd., 83 pp.
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Broadley, D. & Blaylock 2013. The Snakes of Zimbabwe and Botswana. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 387 pp. [book review in Sauria 35 (2): 59 and Copeia 2014: 388] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D. G. & HOWELL, K. M. 1991. A check list of the reptiles of Tanzania, with synoptic keys. Syntarsus 1: 1—70
  • Broadley, D.G. 1956. Snakes of Southem Rhodesia. 1. The Striped Skaapsteker or Three-lined Snake, Psammophylax (formerly Trimerorhinus) tritaeniatus. Afr. Wild Life 10: 215-216.
  • Broadley, D.G. 1959. The herpetology of Southern Rhodesia. Part I--the snakes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 120 (1): 1-100 [reprint 1972] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1960. Serpentes, Colubridae: Psammophylax tritaeniatus fitzgeraldi. Occ. Pap. Natn. Mus. S. Rhodesia (Ser. B) 3: 431-432
  • Broadley, D.G. 1991. The Herpetofauna of Northern Mwinilunga Distr., Northw. Zambia. Arnoldia Zimbabwe 9 (37): 519-538
  • Broadley, D.G. 1998. The reptilian fauna of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa). In: Schmidt, K.P. and Noble, G.K., Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgian Congo... [reprint of the 1919 and 1923 papers]. SSAR Facsimile reprints in Herpetology, 780 pp.
  • Broadley, D.G.; Doria, C.T. & Wigge, J. 2003. Snakes of Zambia. An Atlas and Field Guide. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 280 pp. [review in Sauria 26 (3): 21]
  • Broadley, Donald G. and F. P. D. Cotterill. 2004. The reptiles of southeast Katanga, an overlooked 'hot spot'. [Congo]. African Journal of Herpetology 53 (1): 35-61. - get paper here
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Conradie W, Bills R, and Branch WR. 2016. The herpetofauna of the Cubango, Cuito, and lower Cuando river catchments of south-eastern Angola. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 10(2) [Special Section]: 6–36 - get paper here
  • Fitzsimons, V. 1966. A check-list, with syntopic keys, to the snakes of southern Africa. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 25 (3): 35-79 - get paper here
  • Günther, A C L G 1881. Herpetology. In Oates, Matabeleland and the Victoria Falls. London, p. 329-330, plates C,D - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1868. Sixth account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 1: 413-429 - get paper here
  • Haagner, G. V. 1986. Life History Note: Psammophylax tritaeniatus: Reproduction. J. Herp. Assoc. Africa (32): 35-35 - get paper here
  • Haagner,G.V.; Branch,W.R. & Haagner,A.J.F. 2000. Notes on a collection of reptiles from Zambia and adjacent areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Annals of the Eastern Cape Museum 1: 1 – 25
  • Hartmann, Jörg 1998. Der Gestreifte Shaapsteker (Psammophylax tritaeniatus) - Porträt einer Rarität in der Terraristik. Elaphe 6 (1): 17-22
  • Herrmann, H.-W.; W.R. Branch 2013. Fifty years of herpetological research in the Namib Desert and Namibia with an updated and annotated species checklist. Journal of Arid Environments 93: 94–115 - get paper here
  • Laurent, R.F. 1956. Notes herpetologiques africaines I. Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 52 (3-4): 229-256
  • Laurent, R.F. 1956. Contribution à l'herpetologie de la région des Grandes Lacs de l'Afrique centrale. Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Belge (Sci. Zool.), 48: 1-390
  • Marques, Mariana P.; Luis M. P. Ceríaco , David C. Blackburn , and Aaron M. Bauer 2018. Diversity and Distribution of the Amphibians and Terrestrial Reptiles of Angola -- Atlas of Historical and Bibliographic Records (1840–2017). Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 4) 65: 1-501 (Supplement II)
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Shine, Richard; William R. Branch, Jonathan K. Webb, Peter S. Harlow, and Terri Shine 2006. Sexual Dimorphism, Reproductive Biology, and Dietary Habits of Psammophiine Snakes (Colubridae) from Southern Africa. Copeia 2006 (4): 650-664 - get paper here
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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