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Pseudalsophis occidentalis (VAN DENBURGH, 1912)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymDromicus occidentalis VAN DENBURGH 1912: 347
Dromicus occidentalis helleri VAN DENBURGH 1912: 349
Dromicus dorsalis occidentalis — MERTENS 1960: 139
Dromicus dorsalis helleri — MERTENS 1960: 138
Alsophis biserialis occidentalis — THOMAS 1997: 36
Alsophis dorsalis occidentalis — SWASH & STILL 2000
Alsophis dorsalis helleri — SWASH & STILL 2000
Pseudalsophis occidentalis — ZAHER et al. 2009
Pseudalsophis occidentalis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 595 
DistributionEcuador (Galapagos Islands: Fernandina, Isabela, Tortuga)

Type locality: “Narborough Island, Galapagos Archipelago” [= Fernandina Island, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador].  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: CAS 11488 (occidentalis)
Holotype: CAS 10280 [helleri] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis [helleri]: Scale-pits present, scales in 19 rows; gastrosteges more than 236; postoculars two; temporals 1+2 or 2+2, spotted, no longitudinal light stripes; no series of definite rounded blackish spots on lateral scales of first and second
rows; light nuchal markings much less prominent, and dark spots on tips of gastrosteges absent or less distinct than in the Narborough form [from VAN DENBURGH 1912].

Diagnosis [occidentalis]: Scale-pits present; scales in 19 rows; gastrosteges 236 to 252; postoculars two; temporals 1+1 or 1+2; striped (or rarely spotted), light nuchal blotches and series of dark spots on tips of gastrosteges and on lower lateral scales very distinct [from VAN DENBURGH 1912]. 
CommentSynonymy: after Wallach et al. 2014. 
EtymologyThe specific name occidentalis (Latin) refers to the western distribution of this species. 
References
  • Mertens, Robert 1960. Über die Schlangen der Galapagos Inseln. Senckenbergiana Biologica 41 (3/4): 133-141
  • Ortiz-Catedral, Luis; Eli Christian, Michael J. A. Skirrow, Danny Rueda, Christian Sevilla, Kumar Kirtana, Enzo MR Reyes, Jennifer C. Daltry 2019. Diet of six species of Galapagos terrestrial snakes (Pseudalsophis spp.) inferred from fecal samples. Herpetology Notes 12: 701-704 - get paper here
  • Swash, A. & Still, R. 2000. Birds, Mammals and Reptiles of the Galapagos Islands. Pica Press, 168 pp.
  • Thomas, Robert A 1997. Galapagos terrestrial snakes: biogeography and systematics. Herpetological Natural History 5 (1): 19-40
  • Van Denburgh, John 1912. Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. IV. The snakes of the Galapagos Islands. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 4) 1: 323-374 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe Gobbi; Cadle, John E.; Murphy, Robert W.; Moura-Leite, Julio Cesar de; Bonatto, Sandro L 2009. Molecular phylogeny of advanced snakes (Serpentes, Caenophidia) with an emphasis on South American Xenodontines: a revised classification and descriptions of new taxa. Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) 49 (11): 115-153 - get paper here
 
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