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Pseudemys concinna (LE CONTE, 1830)

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Higher TaxaEmydidae, Deirochelyinae, Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesPseudemys concinna concinna (LE CONTE 1830)
Pseudemys concinna floridana (LE CONTE 1830)
Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis CARR 1937 
Common NamesE: Eastern River Cooter
G: Fluss-Schmuckschildkröte, Hieroglyphen-Schmuckschildkröte
E: Florida Cooter [floridana]
G: Florida-Schmuckschildkröte [floridana]
E: Suwannee River Cooter [suwanniensis]
G: Suwannee-Schmuckschildkröte [suwanniensis] 
SynonymTestudo concinna LE CONTE 1830: 106
Emys Concinna — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 289
Pseudemys concinna— GRAY 1855
Chrysemys concinna — BOULENGER 1889
Chrysemys concinna — FRITZ 1981
Pseudemys concinna — STEBBINS 1985: 102
Pseudemys concinna — CROTHER 2000

Pseudemys concinna concinna (LE CONTE 1830)
Emys annulifera GRAY 1831
Emys hieroglyphica HOLBROOK 1836: 47
Emys mobilensis HOLBROOK 1838
Emys labyrinthica DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1851
Ptychemys hoyi AGASSIZ 1857 (fide REYNOLDS et al. 2007)
Ptychemys mobilensis — fide GRAY 1863: 176
Emys ventricosa — fide GRAY 1863: 176
Emys orthonyx WIED 1865: 23
Emys mobiliensis [sic] — GÜNTHER 1885: 5
Chrysemys mobilensis BOULENGER 1889 (nomen subst.)
Ptychemys mobiliensis [sic] — BAUR 1889
Chrysemys hieroglyphica— BOULENGER 1889
Ptychemys concinna — BAUR 1889
Pseudemys labyrinthica — BAUR 1893: 222
Pseudemys mobilensis — BAUR 1893: 224
Pseudemys elonae BRIMLEY 1928
Pseudemys vioscana BRIMLEY 1928 (fide REYNOLDS et al. 2007)
Pseudemys concinna concinna — STEJNEGER & BARBOUR 1939
Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica — STEJNEGER & BARBOUR 1939
Pseudemys concinna mobilensis — STEJNEGER & BARBOUR 1939
Chrysemys concinna hieroglyphica — MCCOY 1975
Chrysemys concinna mobilensis — FRITZ & BIENERT 1981
Chrysemys floridana mobilensis — FRITZ 1981
Chrysemys concinna hieroglyphica — FRITZ & BIENERT 1981
Pseudemys concinna metteri WARD 1984 (fide REYNOLDS et al. 2007)
Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica — WARD 1984: 38
Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 67
Pseudemys concinna concinna — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 66
Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica — MITCHELL & REAY 1999
Pseudemys concinna concinna — CROTHER 2000
Pseudemys concinna metteri — DIXON 2000
Pseudemys concinna metteri — OBST 2003: 16
Pseudemys concinna concinna — TTWG 2014
Pseudemys concinna concinna — SEIDEL & ERNST 2017

Pseudemys concinna floridana (LE CONTE 1830)
Testudo Floridana LE CONTE 1830: 100
Emys Floridana — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 285
Pseudemys floridana — BAUR 1893: 223
Chrysemys floridana — FRITZ 1981
Chrysemys floridana hoyi — FRITZ & BIENERT 1981
Pseudemys floridana — WARD 1984: 40
Chrysemys floridana floridana — DENZER 1986
Pseudemys floridana floridana — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 68
Pseudemys floridana — IVERSON 1992:194
Pseudemys concinna floridana — SEIDEL 1994
Pseudemys concinna floridana — CROTHER 2000
Pseudemys floridana — THOMSON et al. 2008
Pseudemys floridana — JENSEN et al. 2008: 491
Pseudemys floridana — WERNING 2009
Pseudemys floridana — AKERET 2009
Pseudemys concinna floridana — ERNST & LOVICH 2009
Pseudemys floridana floridana — RHODIN et al. 2010
Pseudemys floridana — CHAPIN & MEYLAN 2011
Pseudemys concinna floridana — CROTHER et al. 2012
Pseudemys floridana — ARESCO et al. 2015
Pseudemys floridana — KELLEY & FINGER 2016
Pseudemys concinna floridana — TTWG 2017: 60 (status undecided)
Pseudemys concinna floridana — CROTHER et al. 2017
Pseudemys concinna floridana — SEIDEL & ERNST 2017

Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis CARR 1937
Pseudemys suwanniensis CARR 1937
Pseudemys floridana suwanniensis CARR 1937
Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis — STEJNEGER & BARBOUR 1939
Chrysemys concinna suwanniensis — FRITZ & BIENERT 1981
Chrysemys floridana suwanniensis — FRITZ 1981
Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis — WARD 1984: 39
Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 66
Pseudemys suwanniensis — SEIDEL 1994
Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis — JACKSON & WALKER 1997
Pseudemys suwanniensis — CROTHER 2000
Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis — OBST 2003: 16
Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis — JACKSON & JACKSON 2006
Pseudemys suwanniensis — ERNST & LOVICH 2009
Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis — RHODIN et al. 2010
Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis — CROTHER et al. 2012
Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis — TTWG 2014: 359
Pseudemys suwanniensis — THOMAS et al. 2015
Pseudemys suwanniensis — CROTHER et al. 2017
Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis — TTWG 2017
Pseudemys suwanniensis — SEIDEL & ERNST 2017 
DistributionUSA (Indiana, West Virginia, Ohio, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, E Oklahoma, Texas, SE New Mexico, SE Kansas, S Missouri, S Illinois, W Kentucky, W Tennessee, Florida)

concinna: USA (Indiana, West Virginia, Ohio, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, E Oklahoma, Texas, SE Kansas, S Missouri, S Illinois, W Kentucky, W Tennessee, Florida); Type locality: Inhabits in rivers of Georgia and Carolina. where the beds are rocky. I have never seen them below Augusta on the Savannah, or Columbia on the Congaree"; restricted by Schmidt (1953: 101) to the "vicinity of Columbia [Richland Co.], South Carolina" [USA]

floridana: USA (along the Atlantic Coastal Plain in North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, and west across the Gulf Coastal Plain in Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, E Texas, Oklahoma, SE Kansas, Arkansas, S Missouri, SW Indiana, W Kentucky, W Tennessee, Virginia); Type locality: "St. John's river of East Florida" [USA]

mobilensis: USA (Texas), Mexico (Nuevo Leon); Type locality: Mobile, Alabama;

suwanniensis: USA (Mobile Bay, Alabama, Mississippi); Type locality: Mobile Bay, Alabama  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesLectotype: MNHN (designated by R. Bour, pers. comm. cited in Iverson 1992: 192)
Syntype: MNHN, (R. Bour, pers. comm. cited in Iverson 1992: 192) [floridana]
Holotype: UMMZ 81673 [suwanniensis]
Holotype: ANSP 242 [mobilensis]
Holotype: USNM 79631 [elonae]
Holotype: USNM 7173, female [metteri] 
Diagnosis 
CommentSynonymy: mostly after Rhodin et al. (2010). P. c. hieroglyphica and P. c. mobilensis are considered synonymous by Iverson 1992. P. c. texana is considered as a valid species by several authors. Seidel (1994) demonstrated that P. c. hieroglyphica and P. c. metteri are not distinct and represent only clinal variation. Pseudemys floridana peninsularis is treated here as full species. FRITZ (1981) and Seidel (1994) placed floridana in the synonymy of concinna. CROTHER et al. 2017 lists suwanniensis as full species but the comment says that it should be treated as a subspecies of P. concinna.

Diet: herbivorous.

Distribution: not listed for Nuevo Leon by Lemos-Espinal et al. 2016. See map in Seidel & Dreslik 1996.

Type species: Testudo concinna LE CONTE 1830: 106 is the type species of the genus Pseudemys GRAY 1856: 33.

The genus Pseudemys is genetically very poorly differentiated (Spinks et al. 2013). The interpretation most consistent with the genetic data is that Pseudemys has been oversplit. One working hypothesis is that the genetic diversity among Pseudemys may best be represented by three lineages, namely one taxon consisting of the westernmost populations of Pseudemys (currently P. texana plus P. gorzugi), a lineage in the Alabama-Coosa river and nearby drainages, extending east into peninsular Florida, and a lineage that covers most of the remaining range. Of the nine currently recognized taxa, at least one analysis could be construed as supporting the recognition of two members of the rubriventris group (P. alabamensis and P. rubiventris), and two of the concinna group (P. gorzugi and P. peninsularis). Seidel (1994) argued for eight species of Pseudemys based on his morphometric analysis. This view, although itself controversial (e.g., Jackson, 1995) is in strong contrast with the patterns found by Spinks et al. 2013.

Original description from BAUR (1893): The shell is much more arched than in P. rubiventris; the coloration is like that in the latter form, but the plastron is yellow, or yellow wilh brown reticulations or dots.

Habitat: freshwater (lakes, ponds, rivers)

NCBI taxon ID: 1324784 [suwanniensis] 
EtymologyThe genus name means “false turtle, false Emys”.
The epithet concinna means skillfully joined, neatly arranged; probably referring to the relatively smooth shell (Seidel & Ernst 2017). 
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