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Pseudocalotes baliomus HARVEY, SHANEY, HAMIDY, KURNIAWAN & SMITH, 2017

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesE: Spot-Shouldered False Garden Lizard 
SynonymPseudocalotes baliomus HARVEY, SHANEY, HAMIDY, KURNIAWAN & SMITH 2017 
DistributionIndonesia (Sumatra)

Type locality: forest west of the mountain crest next to the road from Tapan to Sungai Penuh, Sumatera Barat Department, Sumatra, Indonesia, 2.04294°S, 101.31129°E (WGS 84 geodetic system), 1181 m elevation.  
Reproductionoviparous. The eggs of this species are oval-shaped rather than fusiform as in Bronchocela (Diong & Lim 1998). UTA R- 60549 (SVL 66.5 mm) has one large egg (5.0 X 3.8 mm) and four small, undeveloped eggs (1.3–1.8 mm in diameter) in the right ovary. This specimen’s oviducts are highly convoluted and somewhat distended, suggesting that the developing egg would not have been the specimen’s first clutch. 
TypesHolotype: MZB 9813, adult male. collector’s tag ENS 14429), collected by Elijah Wostl and Eric N. Smith on 23 June 2013.
Paratypes. An adult male (RMNH 3013a) and female (RMNH 3013b) from “Sumatra” Indonesia, collected by Salomon Müller. The paratypes lack any locality data other than “Sumatra.” 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A species of Pseudocalotes reaching at least 218 mm (68 mm SVL) and distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) interoculabials 3 or 4; (2) canthals 6 or 7; (3) enlarged, heavily keeled to subpyramidal posttemporal and posttympanic scales present; postrictal modified scale absent; (4) gulars relatively small, homogenous, no sharp transition to small scales on gular pouch; (5) antehumeral fold poorly developed; (6) dorsolateral row of widely spaced heavily keeled scales present; (7) scales on lower flanks heterogenous with heavily keeled scales interspersed with smaller feebly keeled scales; (8) 53–55 scales around midbody; (9) dorsal crest of denticulate scales extending to base of tail; all projecting scales of crest separated by medial contact between scales of paravertebral series; (10) ventrals smaller than dorsals; (11) subdigital lamellae at base of Toe III bicarinate with preaxial and postaxial keels well developed; (12) 7 or 8 lamellae under Toe IV within the span of the fifth toe; (13) dorsum green, banded; distinctive white scapular spot; (14) ventral body yellow-green, immaculate; (15) gular pouch yellow-green immaculate; (16) tongue pale blue, throat black.

Comparisons. Pseudocalotes baliomus most closely resembles P. rhammanotus and P. tympanistriga (characters in parentheses, Table 1). Unlike these species, P. baliomus has three or four interoculabials (two except for one specimen of P. tympanistriga with three interoculabials), enlarged scales on the lower flanks (absent), and a distinctive white scapular spot including an enlarged, heavily keeled scale (absent). In addition to these characters, unlike P. rhammanotus, P. baliomus has 28–30 subdigital lamellae under the fourth toe (24) and 7 or 8 lamellae (vs. 2) under Toe IV within the span of the fifth toe.
With its bright green coloration and enlarged scales on the lower flanks, Pseudocalotes baliomus might be confused with the superficially similar Sumatran congeners P. cybelidermus and P. guttalineatus. Unlike these species, P. baliomus has 3 or 4 interoculabials (two), bicarinate lamellae at the base of the third toe (preaxial keel noticeably enlarged relative to postaxial keel; postaxial keel absent or vestigial), and a cream to bluish white buccal epithelium and tongue (bright yellow to orange). The new species lacks a postrictal modified scale (present). In addition to these characters, unlike P. cybelidermus, P. baliomus has three paravertebral rows directed upward and backward (4 or 5), ventrals smaller than dorsals at midbody (larger), and 7 or 8 lamellae (vs. 2) on Toe IV within the span of the fifth toe. For those three characters, P. baliomus and P. guttalineatus resemble one another. However, unlike P. guttalineatus, P. baliomus has enlarged scales on its lower flanks (absent).
Most congeners not present on Sumatra have greatly enlarged, serrate preaxial keels at the base of Toe III (Dring 1979; Hallermann & Böhme 2000; Hallermann et al. 2010; Harvey et al. 2014), and this character immediately distinguishes them from Pseudocalotes baliomus. Bicarinate lamellae at the base of Toe III have been reported for P. dringi, P. khaonanensis, P. saravacensis, and P. viserion. Harvey et al. (2014) recoded this character for P. flavigula noting that it has an intermediate condition similar to that of P. cybelidermus and P. guttalineatus. With 53–55 scales at midbody, P. baliomus has substantially fewer midbody scale rows than either P. khaonanensis (72–75, Chan-Ard, Cota & Laoteow 2008) or P. saravacensis (68, Inger & Stuebing 1994); it has substantially more scales around midbody than P. viserion (35–38, L. Grismer et al., 2016). We directly compared the new species to the holotype and paratype of P. dringi. Unlike P. dringi, P. baliomus has keeled gulars (smooth), 6–8 loreals separating the last canthal from the supralabials (3–5), 3 or 4 interoculabials (two), 34–39 interrictals (27– 28), a dorsolateral series of enlarged scales (absent), a posttympanic modified scale (absent), and enlarged scales on the lower flanks (absent). As for P. flavigula, P. dringi has enlarged preaxial keels and vestigial or absent postaxial keels at the base of the third toe.
Pseudocalotes baliomus can be distinguished from other agamids on Sumatra by its clearly visible tympanum, relatively wide gap between the dorsal and nuchal crests, heterogenous dorsal squamation, tail not prehensile and about twice as long as SVL, keeled subdigital lamellae, dorsals larger than ventrals, absence of large spines in the nuchal and postorbital regions, relatively narrow head, absence of a rostral appendage, and other characters of external morphology described in the differential diagnosis of Hallermann & Böhme (2000; see also Mahony 2010 and Harvey et al. 2014). 
EtymologyThe new name baliomus is a masculine adjective derived from the Greek adjective balios meaning spotted and Greek noun omos meaning shoulder. The new name refers to the diagnostic white blotches on the shoulder of Pseudocalotes baliomus. 
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; KYLE SHANEY, AMIR HAMIDY, NIA KURNIAWAN, ERIC N. SMITH 2017. A new species of Pseudocalotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from the Bukit Barisan Range of Sumatra with an Estimation of its phylogeny. Zootaxa 4276 (2): 215–232 - get paper here
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