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Pseudocalotes cybelidermus HARVEY, HAMIDY, KURNIAWAN, SHANEY & SMITH, 2014

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesPurple-throated False Garden Lizard 
SynonymPseudocalotes cybelidermus HARVEY, HAMIDY, KURNIAWAN, SHANEY & SMITH 2014 
DistributionIndonesia (S Sumatra)

Type locality: montane forest at Maura Dua, Remanan Jaya, Gunung Pesagi (locally known as Masagi), Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia, 4.91°S, 104.13°E, 1574 m elevation.  
Reproductionoviparous. The eggs of this species are oval-shaped rather than fusiform as in Bronchocela (Diong & Lim 1998). UTA R- 60549 (SVL 66.5 mm) has one large egg (5.0 X 3.8 mm) and four small, undeveloped eggs (1.3–1.8 mm in diameter) in the right ovary. This specimen’s oviducts are highly convoluted and somewhat distended, suggesting that the developing egg would not have been the specimen’s first clutch. 
TypesHolotype: MZB 9767, an adult male (Fig. 3), collected 17 June 2013 by field parties from BC, MZB, UB, and UTA.
Paratypes. Six specimens (MZB 9650, 9760, 9799, UTA 60549–60551) from the same mountain as the holotype, 1474–1643 m, collected 17 June 2013 by field parties from BC, MZB, UB, and UTA. Eight specimens (MZB 9766, 9769, 9800, UTA 60537–60539, 60552-60553) from montane forest above Ngarip, Lampung, Sumatra, Indonesia, 5.28°S, 104.56° E, 1376–1521 m, collected 10–12 June 2013 by field parties from BC, MZB, UB, and UTA. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A species of Pseudocalotes reaching at least 310 mm (94 mm SVL) and distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) discrete interparietal present (2) canthals five or six; (3) enlarged, heavily keeled to subpyramidal nuchal, posttemporal, posttympanic, and postrictal subpyramidal scales present; (4) gulars relatively large with sharp transition to smaller scales on well developed gular pouch; (5) antehumeral skin fold absent; (6) 6–8 enlarged heavily keeled scales in dorsolateral series between limbs, extending onto neck as short row of closely spaced scales; (7) scales on lower flanks heterogenous: slightly enlarged, heavily keeled scales scattered among smaller feebly keeled scales (8) 51–65 scales around midbody (9) dorsal crest of pointed, projecting scales extending to tail; (10) at midbody, ventrals larger than dorsals; () subdigital lamellae at base of Toe III modified: preaxial keels pointed, prominent; postaxial keels absent or greatly reduced; (12) dorsum bright green with dorsolateral series of white or bluish white, heavily keeled scales; (13) venter light green with prominent ventrolateral bluish white line between legs; (14) gular pouch light green laterally and sky blue medially, its skin purplish blue so that it appears to have oblique purplish blue lines when only partially extended; (15) tongue and floor of mouth yellow-orange, throat black.

Comparisons. Pseudocalotes cybelidermus can be distinguished from other agamids (characters in parentheses) on Sumatra by its clearly visible tympanum, absence of skin folds, relatively narrow head, broad separation of nuchal and dorsal crests, heterogenous dorsal squamation, tail about twice as long as SVL, keeled subdigital lamellae, absence of large spines in the nuchal and postorbital regions, single row of enlarged scales between the orbit and supralabials, orange buccal epithelium, black throat, and other characters of external morphology described in the differential diagnosis of Pseudocalotes of Hallermann & Böhme (2000) as expanded by Mahony (2010).

Pseudocalotes cybelidermus is most similar to P. guttalineatus with which it occurs in microsympatry. Unlike P. guttalineatus (characters in parentheses), P. cybelidermus has an interparietal scale, 2–3X as long as scales surrounding it (interparietal scale not differentiated); relatively large gulars laterally (Fig. 4), numbering 17–25 (relatively small, 23–31) from the preaxial margin of the arm to the mental; enlarged, heavily keeled scales on flanks (Fig. 5) below the dorsolateral series (dorsals on lower flanks homogenous, feebly keeled); ventrals larger than dorsals at midbody (smaller) and fewer ventrals (33–43 from the preaxial edge of the arm to the preaxial edge of the leg, compared to 45–54 in P. guttalineatus); usually more scales around midbody (51–65 compared to 45–55 in P. guttalineatus); and prominent bluish white ventrolateral stripes (absent).

Of the 15 species of Pseudocalotes recognized before this study, only P. tympanistriga Gray, 1831, has been reported from Sumatra (Dring 1979; Hallermann & Böhme 2000). Unlike P. tympanistriga (characters in parentheses), P. cybelidermus has a projecting, serrate dorsal crest in males extending onto the base of the tail (nuchal crest projecting, but dorsal crest of low, enlarged, heavily keeled scales), a gap of 4–7 scales between the nuchal and dorsal crests (2–3 scales), flanks with 6–8 enlarged keeled scales in a single dorsolateral row between limbs (four or five), additional enlarged keeled scales on the lower flanks (scales on lower flanks homogenous), much more developed preaxial than postaxial keels on subdigital lamellae at the base of the third toe (preaxial and postaxial keels equally developed), and an orange tongue (cream).

Ventrals larger than the dorsals, a serrate dorsal crest extending onto the base of the tail, and an enlarged and heavily keeled postrictal scale (Fig. 1) will distinguish P. cybelidermus from all congeners. Species of Bronchocela have ventrals larger than dorsals, however, species in this genus have an antehumeral fold and much longer tails than P. cybelidermus. The eggs of P. cybelidermus are oval shaped, whereas those of Bronchocela are fusiform (Diong & Lim 1998; Hallermann & Böhme 2000). 
CommentSympatry: P. guttalineatus 
Etymology The new name cybelidermus is an adjective derived from the Greek words kybelion, meaning blue-violet, and derma, meaning skin. The new name alludes to the striking blue-violet skin between scales of the gular pouch in Pseudocalotes cybelidermus. 
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; AMIR HAMIDY, NIA KURNIAWAN, KYLE SHANEY & ERIC N. SMITH 2014. Three new species of Pseudocalotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from southern Sumatra, Indonesia. Zootaxa 3841 (2): 211–238 - get paper here
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; KYLE SHANEY, AMIR HAMIDY, NIA KURNIAWAN, ERIC N. SMITH 2017. A new species of Pseudocalotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from the Bukit Barisan Range of Sumatra with an Estimation of its phylogeny. Zootaxa 4276 (2): 215–232 - get paper here
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