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Pseudocalotes rhaegal GRISMER, QUAH, WOOD, ANUAR, MUIN, DAVIS, MURDOCH, GRISMER, COTA & COBOS, 2016

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Rhaegal’s False Garden Lizard 
SynonymPseudocalotes rhaegal GRISMER, QUAH, WOOD, ANUAR, MUIN, DAVIS, MURDOCH, GRISMER, COTA & COBOS 2016 
DistributionPeninsular Malaysia (Pahang)

Type locality: Robinson Falls, Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia (04° 43.283 N 101° 23.129 E; 1411 m in elevation  
Reproductionoviparous. All were gravid females collected during mid-March or mid- September, indicating that this species may breed year-round (Grismer et al. 2016). 
TypesHolotype: LSUHC 12178, Adult female, collected on 18 March 2015 by L. Lee Grismer, Evan S. H. Quah, Shahrul Anuar, Mohd A. Muin, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Hayden R. Davis, Matthew L. Murdoch, Brandon R. Burch, and Anthony J. Cobos at 2030 hrs.
Paratypes. Adult female LSUHC 12179 bears the same locality collecting data as the holotype. Adult female LSUHC 12000 bears the same collecting locality and collectors but was collected on 4 September 2014. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. is differentiated from all other Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a convex rostrum; 6–8 postrostrals; an interparietal; nine or 10 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7–10 superciliaries; one or two scales between the rostral and nasal scales; eight or nine supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; 11 or 12 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; 4–6 chinshields; 40–45 smooth, wide, gular scales; no transverse gular fold; weak antehumeral fold; three or four enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; no large scales bordering the upper margin of the ear opening or in the pretympanic region; 6–8 enlarged nuchal crest scales not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to base of tail; weakly keeled, non-plate-like scales on flanks; 52–58 scales around midbody; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19–21 subdigital lamellae on fourth finger; 22–26 subdigital lamellae on fourth toe; preaxial scales on third toe enlarged and rounded; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.50–0.54; HL/SVL 0.28–0.30; no elbow or knee patches; and female dewlap bearing a purple base. These characters or a subset of them are scored across all species in Table 3 (Grismer et al. 2016).

Comparisons. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other species of Pseudocalotes by having a cyan dewlap with a purple center (females) and the unique combination of numerous other characteristics (Table 3). With the exception of Pseudocalotes flavigula and P. viserion sp. nov., P. rhaegal sp. nov. most closely resembles the other geographically proximate Thai-Malay Peninsula species P. khaononensis, P. larutensis, P. drogon sp. nov., and P. dringi. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. can be differentiated from P. flavigula and P. viserion sp. nov., by several characteristics the most notable of which is the lack of enlarged, plate-like scales on the flanks (Figs. 9,10). From Pseudocalotes khaononensis, P. rhaegal sp. nov. can be differentiated by having a maximum SVL of 85.2 mm versus 104.5 mm; five as opposed to six canthals; seven or eight as opposed to nine infralabials; smooth as opposed to acuminate gular scales; three or four versus one enlarged scale between the eye and the ear; enlarged vertebral scales extending beyond midbody as opposed to not extending beyond midbody; 52–58 as opposed to 72–75 scales around midbody; ventral scales being smaller as opposed to being larger than dorsal scales; 22–26 as opposed to 27 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; having as opposed to lacking enlarged, rounded, preaxial lamellae on the third toe; and having a cyan dewlap with a purple center (female) versus a purple dewlap in males (Fig. 8). From P. larutensis, P. rhaegal sp. nov. can be differentiated by having nine or 10 versus 11–14 circumorbitals; 40–45 versus 55–69 gulars; smooth as opposed to weakly keeled gular scales; enlarged vertebral scales extending beyond midbody as opposed to not extending beyond midbody; preaxial scales on third toe bearing enlarged, rounded, scales versus being unmodified; having a cyan dewlap with a purple tip (females) versus a yellow dewlap with a purple, horizontal, centrally positioned marking (Fig. 8). From P. dringi, P. rhaegal sp. nov. is separated by having a maximum SVL of 85.2 mm versus 70.3 mm; 6–8 versus five postrostrals; four as opposed to two postmentals; a weak, antehumeral fold as opposed to lacking a fold; having three or four versus two enlarged scales between eye and ear; enlarged vertebral scales extend beyond midbody as opposed to not extending beyond midbody; having as opposed to lacking enlarged, spinose, preaxial lamellae on the third toe; 52–58 scales around midbody versus 48–52; 23 versus 26 fourth toe subdigital lamellae; and having a cyan dewlap with a purple tip (females) versus a purple dewlap in males (Fig. 8). From P. drogon sp. nov., P. rhaegal sp. nov. can be differentiated by having nine or 10 as opposed to 11 circumorbitals; 11 or 12 as opposed to 10 postnasal- suborbitals; 40–45 as opposed to 47 gular scales; a row of three or four versus two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; lacking as opposed to having three large supratympanic scales; pretympanic scales small as opposed to large; a convex versus a flat rostrum; lacking versus having enlarged vertebral scales on the tail; 52–58 versus 51 midbody scales; having enlarged, rounded, preaxial scales on the third toe as opposed to enlarged preaxial scales on the third toe being spinose; shorter snout (HL/SVL = 0.28–0.30 versus 0.31); and having a white patch of suborbital scales as opposed to lacking a white patch of suborbital scales (Table 4). Differences from other species are listed in Table 3 (Grismer et al. 2016). 
CommentHabitat: All Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. were collected at night between at 2000 and 2300 hrs while sleeping on thin, horizontal branches of small trees in the vicinity of a river flowing through the hill dipterocarp forest at Robinson Falls (Grismer et al. 2016).

Abundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet rhaegal refers to this species’ resemblance in form and color to the greenish dragon, Rhaegal—one of three dragons born in the Dothraki Sea and commanded by Daenerys Targaryen—the Mother of Dragons—in George R. R. Martin’s fictional work Game of Thrones. 
References
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; EVAN S. H. QUAH, PERRY L. WOOD, JR., SHAHRUL ANUAR, ABDUL MUIN, HAYDEN R. DAVIS, MATTHEW L. MURDOCH, JESSE L. GRISMER, MICHAEL COTA & ANTHONY J. COBOS 2016. Dragons in the mist: three new species of Pseudocalotes Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae) from the sky island archipelago of Peninsular Malaysia Zootaxa 4136 (3): 461–490
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
 
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