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Pseudohaje goldii (BOULENGER, 1895)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: African Tree Cobra, Golds Forest Cobra, Goldie’s False Cobra or Tree Cobra 
SynonymNaia goldii BOULENGER 1895: 34
Naia yakomae MOCQUARD 1895 (1896): 233
Naia guentheri BOULENGER 1897: 154
Naja goldii – SCHMIDT 1923: 130
Naja goldii — LOVERIDGE 1936: 42
Naja goldii – MERTENS 1941: 278
Pseudohaje goldii — BOGERT 1942
Pseudohaje goldii — WELCH 1994: 105
Pseudohaje goldii — TRAPE & ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995: 44
Pseudohaje goldii — CHIRIO & INEICH 2006
Pseudohaje goldii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 602
Pseudohaje goldii — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 559 
DistributionAngola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, W/C/E Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Uganda, Equatorial Guinea

Type locality: Asaba, Nigeria  
TypesType: BMNH 1946.1.21.43 (and possibly additional specimens). 

Synonymy (partly) after BOGERT 1942 and A. Schmitz (pers. comm.).

Distribution: see map in RASMUSSEN 1989. For a map with localities in Equatorial Guinea see SÁNCHEZ-VIALAS et al. 2022.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018).

Similar species: Toxicodryas blandingii (males) 
EtymologyNamed after Sir George Dashwood Taubman Goldie (1846-1925), a soldier and founder of what is now Nigeria. He also was the Governor of the Royal Niger Company. 
  • Akani, G.C.; Angelici, F.M.; Luiselli, L. 2005. Ecological data on the Goldie's tree cobra, Pseudohaje goldii (Elapidae) in southern Nigeria. Amphibia-Reptilia 26 (3): 382-387 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bogert, C. M. 1942. Pseudohaje Günther, a valid genus for two West African arboreal cobras. American Museum Novitates 1174: 1-9 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1897. Description of a new snake from Sierra Leone. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 19: 154 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1895. On some new or little-known reptiles obtained by W. H. Crosse Esq. on the Niger. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 16: 32-34 - get paper here
  • Branch, W. R. 1981. The venomous snakes of southern Africa 2. Elapidae and Hydrophidae. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 17 (1): 1-47 - get paper here
  • Broadley, Donald G. 2002. An Appropriate English Name for Pseudohaje goldii (Boulenger). African Herp News (34): 2-3 - get paper here
  • Brunner, A. 1968. Über die Black Forest Cobra, Pseudohaje goldii. Salamandra 4 (2-3): 56-59 - get paper here
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Chippaux, Jean-Philippe & Kate Jackson 2019. Snakes of Central and Western Africa. Johns Hopkins University Press, 448 pp. [detaileld review in HR 51 (1): 161] - get paper here
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Chirio, Laurent and Ivan Ineich 2006. Biogeography of the reptiles of the Central African Republic. African Journal of Herpetology 55(1):23-59. - get paper here
  • Courtois,B. 1978. Note sur la description de deux specimens de Pseudohaje goldii (BOULENGER) trouvés en Cote d’Ivoire (Serpentes: Elapidae). Bull. Inst. Fondamental d’Afrique Noire, Dakar, Sér. A, 40: 212-214
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa - Giftschlangen Afrikas. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 15, 150 pp. - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Hughes, B. 1976. Zoogeography of West African False Cobras (Pseudohaje spp.). Bull. IFAN 38 (sér. A, 2): 457-466
  • Loveridge, A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • Marques, Mariana P.; Luis M. P. Ceríaco , David C. Blackburn , and Aaron M. Bauer 2018. Diversity and Distribution of the Amphibians and Terrestrial Reptiles of Angola -- Atlas of Historical and Bibliographic Records (1840–2017). Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 4) 65: 1-501 (Supplement II)
  • Mertens, R. 1941. Zur Kenntnis der Herpetofauna von Fernando-Poo. Zool. Anz. 135: 275-281
  • Mocquard, F. 1896. Sur une collection de Reptiles du Haut-Oubanghi. Bull. Soc. Philomath. Paris (8) 19: 44-45 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O. S. G. B. Le Garff, I. Ineich, P. Carlino, I. Melcore, L. Boundenga, C. Vigna, T. Stévart, K. Jeffery, C. Orbell, J.-B. Squarcini, J. P. Vande weghe and L. J. T. White 2016. Miscellanea Herpetologica Gabonica V & VI. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 51: 177 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G. & Vande Weghe, J.P. 2008. Les reptiles du Gabon. Smithsonian Institution, Washington: 272 pp. - get paper here
  • Pauwels,O.S.G. & David, P. 1999. Pseudohaje goldii (Boulenger 1895); Goldie’s Tree Cobra - Diet. African Herp News (30): 32-33 - get paper here
  • Pitman,C.R.S. 1974. A guide to the snakes of Uganda. Codicote, Wheldon & Wesley, L., 290 pp.
  • Rasmussen, J.B. 1989. A taxonomic review of the Dipsadoboa duchesnei complex. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 40 (3/4): 249-264 - get paper here
  • SÁNCHEZ-VIALAS, A., CALVO-REVUELTA, M. & DE LA RIVA, I. 2022. Synopsis of the terrestrial Reptiles of Equatorial Guinea. Zootaxa, 5202 (1): 1-197 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1923. Contributions to the herpetology of the Belgian Congo based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909-1915. Part II. Snakes, with field notes by Herbert Lang and James P. Chapin. Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 49 (1): 1-146 - get paper here
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995. Les serpents du Congo: liste commentée et clé de détermination. Journal of African Zoology 109 (1): 31-50
  • TRAPE, JEAN-FRANÇOIS & CELLOU BALDÉ 2014. A checklist of the snake fauna of Guinea, with taxonomic changes in the genera Philothamnus and Dipsadoboa (Colubridae) and a comparison with the snake fauna of some other West African countries. Zootaxa 3900 (3): 301–338 - get paper here
  • Ukuwela, K.D.B., de Silva, A., Sivaruban, A. et al. 2022. Diversity, distribution, and natural history of the marine snakes of Sri Lanka. Marine Biodiversity 52, 24 (2022) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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