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Psychosaura agmosticha (RODRIGUES, 2000)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Mabuyinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymMabuya agmosticha RODRIGUES 2000
Psychosaura agmosticha — HEDGES & CONN 2012: 137 
DistributionNE Brazil (Alagoas, Paraiba, “Caatingas”, Ceará)

Type locality: Xingo (09°24'S, 37°58'W; approximatelly 450 m elevation); State of Alagoas, Brazil  
Reproductionviviparous. 
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 79189, an adult male, collected by Nelson Jorge da Silva Jr. on 10 May 1994 at the northern margin of the dam .
Paratypes. MZUSP 78947-78949, MZUSP 79164, MZUSP 79167-79170, MZUSP 79172-79188, 79190-79197. Same data of the holotype, collected between 10 May and II June 1994. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). Species in this genus are characterized by (1) frontoparietals, two, (2) supraciliaries, 4–5, (3) supraoculars, four, (4) prefrontal contact, absent, (5) parietal contact, present, (6) rows of nuchals, 1–2, (7) dorsals + ventrals, 114 in one specimen of P. macrorhyncha scored by us (50–58 dorsals and 33–38 ventrals, counted by a different method; Rodrigues et al. 2000), (8) total lamellae, 201, (9) dark middorsal stripe, absent, (10) dark dorsolateral stripes, present, (11) dark lateral stripe, present, and (12) dark ventral striping, absent. They are intermediate in size, with a range of maximum body sizes among the species of 74–85 mm (Vrcibradic & Rocha 2011) (Table 2).

The presence of dark dorsolateral stripes separates Psychosaura from Alinea, Capitellum, Copeoglossum, Exila, Maracaiba, and Notomabuya (dark dorsolateral stripes absent). In several other genera (Mabuya, Marisora, and Varzea), dark dorsolateral stripes are usually absent as well. It differs from Aspronema, Brasiliscincus, Capitellum, and Manciola by having a higher number of total lamellae (201 versus 147–194 in those other species). From Aspronema and Manciola, it is distinguished by the absence of a narrow dark middorsal stripe. It differs from Exila, Notomabuya, and Panopa by having two (versus one) frontoparietals. It differs from Exila and Panopa in lacking prefrontal contact (versus prefrontals in contact or fused). Psychosaura also differs from Panopa in having 1–2 rows of nuchals versus 3–5 rows. It differs from Orosaura (97 mm maximum SVL) in being slightly smaller (74–85 mm maximum SVL) and in having a prominent head. In having dark palms and soles, Psychosaura differs from Brasiliscincus, Manciola, Notomabuya, and most Spondylurus (pale palms and soles, except S. caicosae sp. nov., S. fulgidus, and S. lineolatus).

Diagnosis (species). A Mabuya with an undivided lower eyelid, all scales smooth, auricular lobes absent, smooth scales on the soles, and having: I) a prominent snout; 2) a pair of frontoparietals; 3) four supraoculars; 4) a pair o f dorsolateral and lateral light stripes alternating with dark stripes which extend from the head to only just after the arm. Among the continental South American Mabuya only three species are characterized by a prominent snout: M. macrorhyncha, M. croizati, and M. carvalhoi. I restrict comparisons of the new species to these speci es. However, Mabuya agmosticha is the only South American species with a pattern of alternating dorsolateral and lateral light and dark stripes that abruptly terminate after the arm. Mabuya agmosthica differs from M . croizati and M . carvalhoi by having (data for the latter species in parenthesis): two frontoparietal scales (single); usually one pair ofnuchaIs(more than two); body stripes extending only tojust after the arm insertion (to the tail). Mabuya agmosticha and M . croizati also differ from M. carvalhoi by having paired prefrontal scales; (fused in M. carvalhoi). From Mabuya macrorhyncha, M. agmosticha differs by the interruption of the body stripes (extending to the tail), by having the fifth supralabial under the eye (generally the sixth), and a first loreal extending to the level of the half of the second supralabial (overlapping the 3th) [from RODRIGUES 2000]. 
Comment 
EtymologyEtymology (genus). The generic name (Psychosaura) is a feminine noun from the Greek psyche (mind) and saura (lizard), meaning “thinking lizard,” in allusion to the prominent heads, gracile bodies, and agile, active habits of the species.

Etymology. The specific name is an adject ive referring to the abrupt termination of the body stripes in this species. 
References
  • Hamdan, B.; D.P. Coelho; A.B. D’Angiolella; E.J.R. Dias; R.M. Lira-da-Silva. 2013. The Reptile Collection of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Brazil. Check List 9 (2):257-262 - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B. & Conn, C.E. 2012. A new skink fauna from Caribbean islands (Squamata, Mabuyidae, Mabuyinae). Zootaxa 3288: 1–244 - get paper here
  • MIRALLES, AURÉLIEN; GILSON RIVAS FUENMAYOR, CÉLINE BONILLO, WALTER E. SCHARGEL, TITO BARROS, JUAN E. GARCÍA-PEREZ, CÉSAR L. BARRIO-AMORÓS 2009. Molecular systematics of Caribbean skinks of the genus Mabuya (Reptilia, Scincidae), with descriptions of two new species from Venezuela. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 598-616 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro, S. C., I. J. Roberto, D. L. Sales, R. W. Ávila & W. O. Almeida 2012. Amphibians and reptiles from the Araripe bioregion, northeastern Brazil. Salamandra 48 (3): 133-146 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, M.T. 2003. Herpetofauna da Caatinga. In: I.R. Leal, M. Tabarelli & J.M.C. Silva (eds.). Ecologia e conservação da Caatinga, pp. 181-236. Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil.
  • Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut 2000. A new species of Mabuya (Squamata: Scincidae) from the semiarid Caatingas of northeastern Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 41(21):313-328
  • Tavares, Robson V., Ìtalo T. F. Sousa and Marcelo N. C. Kokubum. 2016. Psychosaura agmosticha Drinking behavior. Herpetological Review 47 (2): 303
  • Whiting, Alison S.; Jack W. Sites, Jr., Katia C.M. Pellegrino and Miguel T. Rodrigues 2006. Comparing alignment methods for inferring the history of the new world lizard genus Mabuya (Squamata: Scincidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38 (3): 719-730 - get paper here
 
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