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Rhampholeon spectrum (BUCHHOLZ, 1874)

IUCN Red List - Rhampholeon spectrum - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesCameroon Stumptail Chameleon 
SynonymChamaeleo spectrum BUCHHOLZ 1874: 298
Rhampholeon spectrum – GÜNTHER 1874: 443
Rhampholeon affinis STEINDACHNER 1911: 178
Rhampholeon spectrum – WERNER 1911: 45
Brookesia spectrum spectrum – LOVERIDGE 1951: 182
Brookesia spectrum – MERTENS 1966: 3
Brookesia spectrum spectrum – MERTENS 1966: 3
Rhampholeon spectrum – WRIGHT & BROADLEY 1973: 165
Rhampholeon spectrum — NECAS 1999: 258
Rhampholeon (Rhampholeon) spectrum — MATTHEE et al. 2004
Rhampholeon (Rhampholeon) spectrum — GLAW 2015 
DistributionCameroon, Congo (Brazzaville), Bioko = Fernando Po, Central African Republic, Gabon

Type locality: Limbé und Bonjongo, Kamerun. Restricted to Bojongo (MERTENS 1938).  
ReproductionApparently the only known parthenogenetic chameleon (KUHN & SCHMIDT 2003, citing NIETZKE 1998 as source; P. Kornacker, another co-author of Nietzke, says in a personal communication [8 Jul 2010] the source is Petzold 1982). 
TypesSyntypes: ZMB 8026 (2 specimens)
Syntypes: NMW [Rhampholeon affinis] 
Diagnosis 
CommentType Species: Chamaeleo spectrum BUCHHOLZ 1874 is the type species of the genus Rhampholeon GÜNTHER 1874. 
EtymologyThe genus has been named after Greek “rhamphos” = beak and “leon” = lion: beaked lion, referring to the soft granulated rostral appendage present in the type species ofthis genus. 
References
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp.
  • Buchholz, R. 1874. Über den Farbenwechsel der Chamaeleonen. Monatsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Berlin 1874: 298-301 + 1 plate - get paper here
  • Burger, M.; Branch, W.R. & Channing, A. 2004. Amphibians and Reptiles of Monts Doudou, Gabon: Species Turnover Along an Elevational Gradient. California Academy of Sciences Memoir 28: 145–186
  • Carlino, P. & Pauwels, O.S.G. 2015. An Updated Reptile List of Ivindo National Park, the Herpetofaunal Hotspot of Gabon. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 50(3): 25-39 - get paper here
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Euskirchen, O.; Schmitz A. & Böhme, W. 2000. Zur Herpetofauna einer montanen Regenwaldregion in SW-Kamerun (Mt. Kupe und Bakossi-Gergland).IV. Chamaeleonidae, biogeographische Diskussion und Schutzmassnahmen. Herpetofauna 22 (125): 21-34 - get paper here
  • Glaw, F. 2015. Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). [type catalogue] Vertebrate Zoology 65 (2): 167–246 - get paper here
  • Gonwouo, L.N.; LeBreton, M.; Wild, C.; Chirio, L.; Ngassam, P. & Tchamba, M.N. 2006. Geographic and ecological distribution of the endemic montane chameleons along the Cameroon maountain range. Salamandra 42 (4): 213-230 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1874. Description of some new or imperfectly known species of Reptiles from the Cameroon Mountains. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1874: 442-445. - get paper here
  • Harbort, J. & Herrmann H.-W. 2002. Untersuchungen an ausgewählten Chamäleon-Populationen am Mt. Nlonako/Kamerun mit Bemerkungen zu einem Chamaeleo camerunensis. Herpetofauna 24 (140): 25-34 - get paper here
  • Herrel, A. et al. 2000. THE MECHANICS OF PREY PREHENSION IN CHAMELEONS. The Journal of Experimental Biology 203: 3255–3263
  • Kuhn, M. & Schmidt, D. 2003. Parthenogenese beim Dunklen Tigerpython (Python molurus bivittatus). Reptilia (Münster) 8 (44): 78-82 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1951. On reptiles and amphibians from Tanganyika Territory collected by C.J.P. Ionides. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 106 (4): 175- 204. - get paper here
  • Lutzmann, N. 2016. Chamäleons. Immer wieder Neues Reptilia 21 (119): 16-24
  • Matthee, C.; Tilbury, C.R. & Townsend, T. 2004. A phylogenetic review of the African leaf chameleons: genus Rhampholeon (Chamaeleonidae): the role of vicariance and climate change in speciation. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B271: 1967-1975 - get paper here
  • Menegon, M.; Salvidio, S. & Tilbury, C. 2002. A new dwarf chamaeleon from the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania, East Africa (Squamata: Rhampholeon Günther 1874). Journal of Herpetology 36 (1): 51-57 - get paper here
  • Necas, P. & Schmidt, W. 2004. Mysterious Mini-Dragons: the stump-tailed chameleons Brookesia and Rhampholeon. Reptilia (GB) (35): 10-21 - get paper here
  • Necas, P. & Schmidt, W. 2004. Stump-tailed Chameleons. Miniature Dragons of the Rainforest. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 256 pp. [review in Elaphe 14 (1): 24]
  • Necas, P. & Schmidt, W. 2004. Geheimnisvolle Mini-Drachen: Die Erd- und Stummelschwanzchamäleons der Gattungen Brookesia und Rhampholeon. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (48): 18-27 - get paper here
  • Necas, Petr 1999. Chameleons - Nature's Hidden Jewels. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt; 348 pp.; ISBN 3-930612-04-6 (Europe)<br />ISBN 1-57524-137-4 (USA, Canada)
  • Nietzke, G. 1998. Die Terrarientiere 2. Ulmer Verlag (Stuttgart)
  • Ota, H. & Hikida, T. 1987. On a small collection of lizards and snakes from Cameroon, West Africa. African Study Monographs 8 (2): 111-123 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O. S. G. B. Le Garff, I. Ineich, P. Carlino, I. Melcore, L. Boundenga, C. Vigna, T. Stévart, K. Jeffery, C. Orbell, J.-B. Squarcini, J. P. Vande weghe and L. J. T. White 2016. Miscellanea Herpetologica Gabonica V & VI Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 51: 177 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G. & Vande weghe, J.P. 2008. Les reptiles du Gabon. Smithsonian Institution, Washington: 272 pp. - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; Böhme, W. & Tanga, J.J. 2008. Das Westliche Erdchamäleon Rhampholeon spectrum BUCHHOLZ, 1874 in Gabun. Elaphe 16 (3): 59-61 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; Kamdem Toham, A. & Chimsunchart, C. 2002. Recherches sur l’herpétofaune du Massif du Chaillu, Gabon. Bull. Inst. Roy. Sci. Nat. Belgique (Biologie) 72: 47-57 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, Olivier S. G.; Laila Bahaa-el-din , Jean-Louis Albert , Piero Carlino , Francesco Giannuzzi , Laurent Chirio , Jean-François Gillet , Eddy Poirier and Tariq Stévart 2018. Miscellanea Herpetologica Gabonica XIV. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 53(9): 185-190 - get paper here
  • Petzold, H. G. 1982. Aufgaben und Probleme der Tiergärtnerei bei der Erforschung der Lebensäusserungen der niederen Amnioten (Reptilien). Milu, Berlin, pp. 485-786
  • Rogner, Manfred 2014. Chamäleons im Terrarium. Draco 15 (58): 6-22 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, W.; Tamm, K. & Wallikewitz, E. 2010. Chamäleons - Drachen unserer Zeit. Natur und Tier Verlag, 328 pp. [review in Reptilia 101: 64, 2013] - get paper here
  • Steindachner, F. 1911. Vorläufiger Bericht über drei neue Arten aus der Familie Chamaeleontidae. Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien 10: 177-179.
  • Sternfeld,R. 1917. Reptilia und Amphibia. In: Schubotz, H. (Hrsg.): Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition, 1910-1911 unter Führung Adolph Friedrichs, Herzog zu Mecklenburg. Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann, [Band] 1, Zoologie, Lieferung 11; S. 407-510. - get paper here
  • Tilbury, C. 2010. Chameleons of Africa: An Atlas, Including the Chameleons of Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt M., 831 pp.
  • Trape, J.F.; Trape, S. & Chirio, L. 2012. Lézards, crocodiles et tortues d'Afrique occidentale et du Sahara. IRD Orstom, 503 pp. - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1899. Ueber Reptilien und Batrachier aus Togoland, Kamerun und Deutsch-Neu-Guinea grösstentheils aus dem k. Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 49: 132-157 - get paper here
  • Wild, C. 1994. Ecology of the western pygmy chameleon Rhampholeon spectrum BUCHHOLZ 1874 (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae). British Herpetological Society Bulletin (49): 29-35
  • Wright, J. W.;Broadley, D. G. 1973. Chromosomes and the status of Rhampholeon marshalli Boulenger (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae). Bull. South. California Acad. Sci. 72: 164-165 - get paper here
 
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