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Rhinotyphlops lalandei (SCHLEGEL, 1839)

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Higher TaxaTyphlopidae (Afrotyphlopinae), Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesDelalande's Beaked Blind Snake 
SynonymTyphlops Lalandei SCHLEGEL 1839: 38
Rhinotyphlops lalandei - FITZINGER 1843: 24
Onychocephalus delalandii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 273 (Emendation)
Onychophis franklinii GRAY 1845: 132
Onychophis fordii GRAY 1845: 134
Onychophis lalandeii - GRAY 1845
Typhlops smithi Jan, in JAN & SORDELLI 1860
Typhlops Lalandei — JAN 1864
Typhlops lalandei paucisquamosa BOETTGER 1883
Typhlops (Onychocephalus) delalandei - BOETTGER 1887: 154
Typhlops delalandii - BOULENGER 1887: 173
Typhlops delalandii — BOULENGER 1893: 45
Typhlops delalandei var. paucisquamata BOETTGER 1898: 5 (error typographicus)
Typhlops delalandii — FITZSIMONS 1966
Rhinotyphlops lalandei - ROUX-ESTÈVE 1974: 158
Typhlops lalandei — AUERBACH 1987: 145
Rhinotyphlops lalandei — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 81
Rhinotyphlops lalandei — BROADLEY & WALLACH 2009
Rhinotyphlops lalandei — HEDGES et al. 2014 
DistributionRepublic of South Africa, SW Zimbabwe, Mozambique,
E Botswana, Namibia ?

Type locality: “Vorgebirge der guten Hoffnung” [= Cape of Good Hope, South Africa]. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes MNHN 1492, 3214A–B, 6992A–B, RMNH 3715A–B, collected by Lalande and Van Horstolk 
CommentDescription in BROADLEY & WALLACH 2009.

Type species: Typhlops lalandei Schlegel 1839:38 is the type species of the genus Rhinotyphlops Fitzinger 1843.

Diagnosis (genus). Species of Rhinotyphlops have (1) eye, distinct, (2) snout, beaked (rarely rounded), (3) head scale arrangement, non-circular, (4) frontorostral, absent, (5) nasal, completely or incompletely divided, (6) nasal suture origin, 2nd supralabial (sometimes 1st supralabial), (7) suboculars or subpreoculars, absent (sometimes present), (8) postoculars, 4–6 (rarely 2–3; average 4.21), (9) preocular-labial contact, supralabials 2 & 3 (sometimes 2nd or 2–4), (10) midbody scale rows, 22–34 (average, 25.0), (11) scale row reduction, present (sometimes absent), (12) total scale rows, 311–586 (average, 425), (13) caudals, 14–15 (average, 14.5), (14) maximum total length, 220– 455 (average, 323) mm, (15) total length/midbody diameter, 27–77 (average, 48.9), (16) total length/tail length, 50.2–78.5 (average, 65.0), (17) dorsal color, brown (sometimes yellowish, greenish, or reddish), (18) ventral color, white or yellowish (sometimes brownish or black), (19) dorsum darker than venter, (20) overall, either patternless or with longitudinal lines (Tables 1–2); molecular phylogenetic support (Fig. 1 in HEDGES et al. 2014).
From Letheobia, Rhinotyphlops is distinguished by having a distinct eye (versus indistinct), lacking subocular scales (versus present), having a higher average number of midbody scale rows (25.0 versus 22.3), having a higher average number of caudals (14.5 versus 11.1), and having a dark (versus pale) dorsum. From Afrotyphlops, Rhinotyphlops is distinguished by having more caudals (14.5 versus 9.6) and smaller size (323 versus 481 mm average TL). [HEDGES et al. 2014: 31] For an alternative diagnosis see PYRON & WALLACH 2014: 48.

Type species: Typhlops Lalandei SCHLEGEL 1839: 38 is the type species of the genus Rhinotyphlops FITZINGER 1843. 
EtymologyThe generic name is a masculine noun formed from the Greek adjective rhinos (beaked) and Greek noun typhlops (the blind), in reference to the beak-shaped snout of these blindsnakes. 
References
  • Auerbach, R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Bauer, A.M., and Branch, W.R. 2003. The herpetofauna of the Richtersveld National Park, Northern Cape Province, Republic of South Africa. Herpetological Natural History 8: 111-160 [2001]
  • Boettger, O. 1887. Zweiter Beitrag zur Herpetologie Südwest- und Südafrikas. Ber. senckenb. naturf. Ges., Frankfurt am Main, 1887:135-173 - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. 1898. Katalog der Reptilien-Sammlung im Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt/M. 2.Teil (Schlangen). Frankfurt/M (Gebr. Knauer), i-ix + 1-160. - get paper here
  • Boettger,O. 1883. Liste von Reptilien aus Smithfield, Transvaal. Ber. Offenbach. Ver. Naturkunde, 22/23: 155-156
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1887. Synopsis of the snakes of South Africa. The Zoologist, London, (3) 11: 171-182
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Broadley, D. & Blaylock 2013. The Snakes of Zimbabwe and Botswana. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 387 pp. [book review in Sauria 35 (2): 59 and Copeia 2014: 388] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1959. The herpetology of Southern Rhodesia. Part I--the snakes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 120 (1): 1-100 [reprint 1972] - get paper here
  • Broadley, Donald G. & Wallach, V. 2009. A review of the eastern and southern African blind-snakes (Serpentes: Typhlopidae), excluding Letheobia Cope, with the description of two new genera and a new species. Zootaxa 2255: 1-100 - get paper here
  • CONRADIE, W., DOUCETTE-RIISE, S., VANHOOYDONCK, B., ENGELBRECHT,<br />H., MEASEY, G.J., & TOLLEY, K. 2011. Herpetological survey of Rooipoort Nature Reserve, Northern Cape, South Africa. African Herp News (53): 35-41
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1844. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol.6. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 609 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitzsimons, V. 1966. A check-list, with syntopic keys, to the snakes of southern Africa. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 25 (3): 35-79 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Guibé, J. & Roux-Estève, R. 1972. Les types de Schlegel (Ophidiens) présents dans les collections du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Zool. Meded. 47: 129-134 - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • Herrmann, H.-W.; W.R. Branch 2013. Fifty years of herpetological research in the Namib Desert and Namibia with an updated and annotated species checklist. Journal of Arid Environments 93: 94–115 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1860. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 1. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1864. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 4. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 9. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris [1864] - get paper here
  • Marais, J. 2004. A Complete Guide to the Snakes of Southern Africa, 2nd ed. Struik Publishers, 312 pp.
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Pietersen, Darren W.<br />Pietersen, Errol W.<br />Haacke, Wulf D. 2013. First herpetological appraisal of the Parque Nacional de Banhine, Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History 3: 153-163 - get paper here
  • Pyron, R.A. & Wallach, V. 2014. Systematics of the blindsnakes (Serpentes: Scolecophidia: Typhlopoidea) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Zootaxa 3829 (1): 001–081
  • Roux-Estève, R. 1974. Révision systématique des Typhlopidae d'Afrique. Reptilia. Serpentes. Mém. nation. Hist. nat., Paris, (sér.A.) 87: 1-313
  • Schlegel, H. 1839. Abbildungen neuer oder unvollständig bekannter Amphibien, nach der Natur oder dem Leben entworfen und mit einem erläuternden Texte begleitet. Arne and Co., Düsseldorf, xiv + 141 pp.
 
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