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Riama columbiana (ANDERSSON, 1914)

IUCN Red List - Riama columbiana - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesColombian Lightbulb Lizard 
SynonymProctoporus columbianus ANDERSSON 1914
Proctoporus columbianus — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 239
Proctoporus columbianus — DOAN & SCHARGEL 2003
Riama columbiana — DOAN & CASTOE 2005 
DistributionColombia (Valle del Cauca, Caldas, Risaralda, Quindío, probably Antioquia; western slopes of Cordillera Central, elevation 2100-2640 m); elevation 2300–3000 m

Type locality: “Colombia”, probably in Municipio de Sonsón, Departamento de Antioquia according to SANCHEZ-PANCHECO 2010. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesLectotype: NRM (NHRM) 1631, an adult male collected approximately 1825-1832 by Pedro Nisser. 
CommentDistribution: Not listed for Ecuador by TORRES-CARVAJAL 2001. Peters (1967) and Peters & Donoso-Barros (1970) mistakenly reported R. columbiana in Ecuador, due to a misunderstanding on Uzzell's (1958).

Diagnosis – Riama columbiana possesses the following characteristics: (1) frontonasal distinctly longer to distinctly shorter than frontal (in adults usually shorter than frontal); (2)  prefrontal scales absent; (3) nasoloreal suture usually complete (= loreal pres- ent), rarely incomplete; (4) supraoculars four, 2, 2+3, 2+4, or 2+3+4 in contact with ciliaries (one specimen has only the fourth in contact with ciliaries on the right side); (5) superciliary series incomplete (1, 2, 4, 1+1, 1+2, 2+1, 2+2, 3+1 or 3+2); (6) supralabial-subocular fusion absent; (7)  postoculars usually three, rarely two; (8) postparietals 2-4, usually three; (9) supratympanic temporals three; (10) genials two or three, usually three; (11) dorsal scales rectangular, juxtaposed, with a low, rounded keel (smooth on the neck); (12) longitudinal dorsal scale rows in males 25-32, in females 23-33; (13) transverse dorsal scale rows in males 42-46, in females 41-49; (14) ventral scales smooth, in 22-23 transverse scale rows; (15) lat- eral scale rows 3-5, usually three; (16) femoral pores per hind limb in males 10 (the lectotype has nine on the left hind limb), in females 0-2, usually zero; scales between femoral pores in males 5-6, in females 4-6; (17) subdigital scales on Toe I 4-6; (18) limbs not overlapping when adpressed against body in adults; (19) anterior cloacal plate scales two and posterior five; (20) dorsum brown; dorsolateral stripes absent; lateral ocelli present in males, usually absent in fe- males; ventral scales with dark, centrally positioned, linearly arranged spots.

Riama columbiana can be distinguished from all known Colombian congeners and R. simotera (from Colombian-Ecuadorian border) by the high num- ber of transverse dorsal scale rows (41-49 vs. 33-39 in R. striata, 34-41 in R. laevis and 34-39 in R. si- motera) and the texture of the dorsal scales (keeled vs. strongly striated in R. striata, and smooth in R. laevis and R. simotera [at least anteriorly]). Additionally, it can be distinguished by the following traits (condition for R. columbiana in parentheses): R. striata: suture nasoloreal usually absent [= loreal absent] (usually complete [= loreal present]) and superciliary series complete (incomplete). R. laevis: superciliary series complete (incomplete). R.  simotera: nasoloreal suture absent or incomplete [= loreal absent] (usually complete [= loreal present]), femoral pores in males 6 or 7 (9-10), in females 5-7 (0-2) and scales between femoral pores in males usually two (5-6). All Ecuadorian and Peruvian Riama: R. balneator, R. cashcaensis, R. labionis, R. petrorum, R. unicolor and R. vespertina: nasoloreal suture absent [= loreal absent] (usually complete [= loreal present]); R. colomaromani: nasoloreal suture absent or incomplete [= loreal absent] (usually complete [= loreal present]); R. anatoloros: nasoloreal suture absent or incomplete, rarely complete (usually complete), superciliary series usually complete (incomplete); R. orcesi: nasoloreal suture usually absent [= loreal absent] (usually complete [= loreal present]), femoral pores per leg in males 10-14 (9-10); R. raneyi: supraoculars two or three, usually three (four); R. hyposticta: femoral pores per leg in males 4-6 (9-10); R. oculata: femoral pores per leg in males 6-7 (9-10); R. meleagris: femoral pores per leg in females nine (0-2); R. vieta: dorsal scales rugose (keeled); R. stigmatoral: transverse dorsal scale rows 36-41 (41-49), postoculars two (usually three), scales between femoral pores in males 0-2 (5-6); R. laudahnae: supraoculars three (four), supralabial-subocular fusion present (absent). All congeners from Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago: R. rhodogaster: differentiated lateral scale rows absent (present), scales between femoral pores in males absent (5-6), in females one (4-6); R. inanis: transverse dorsal scale rows 29-33 (41-49), transverse ventral scale rows 14-18 (22-23) and femoral pores per hind limb in males 11-12 (9-10), in females 7-8 (0-2); R. luctuosa, R. shrevei and R. achlyens: limbs overlapping when adpressed against body in adults (not overlapping). 
  • Andersson, L.G. 1914. A new Telmatobius and new teiid lizards from South America. Arkiv för Zoologi 9 (3): 1-12 - get paper here
  • Castro-Herrera, F. & Vargas-Salinas, F. 2008. Anfibios y reptiles en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 9 (2): 251 - 277 - get paper here
  • Doan, T. M. & Castoe, T.A. 2005. Phylogenetic taxonomy of the Cercosaurini (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), with new genera for species of Neusticurus and Proctoporus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 143: 405–416.
  • Doan, T.M. 2003. A south-to-north biogeographic hypothesis for Andean speciation: evidence from the lizard genus Proctoporus (Reptilia, Gymnophthalmidae). Journal of Biogeography 30: 361–374
  • Doan, T.M. & Schargel, W.E. 2003. Bridging the gap in Proctoporus distribution: a new species (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Andes of Venezuela. Herpetologica 59 (1): 68-75 - get paper here
  • Rojas-Morales, Julián Andrés, Héctor Fabio Arias-Monsalve y Gustavo A. González-Durán 2014. Anibios y reptiles de la región centro-sur del departamento de Caldas, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 15 (1): 73-93 - get paper here
  • Sánchez-Pacheco, Santiago J.; David A. Kizirian, and Pedro M. Sales Nunes 2011. A New Species of Riama from Ecuador Previously Referred to as Riama hyposticta (Boulenger, 1902) (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). American Museum Novitates (3719): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Sanchez-Pacheco. Santiago J. 2010. Lectotype designation and redescription of the Gymnophthalmid Lizard Riama columbiana (Andersson, 1914) with notes on the type locality. Papeis Avulsos de Zool. 50 (2): 31-41 - get paper here
  • Valencia-Zuleta A, Jaramillo-Martínez AF, Echeverry-Bocanegra A, Viáfara-Vega R, Hernández-Córdoba O, Cardona-Botero VE, Gutiérrez-Zúñiga J, Castro-Herrera F. 2014. Conservation status of the herpetofauna, protected areas, and current problems in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2): 1–18 (e87) - get paper here
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