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Rondonops xanthomystax COLLI, HOOGMOED, CANNATELLA, CASSIMIRO, GOMES, GHELLERE, SALES-NUNES, PELLEGRINO, SALERNO, MARQUES DE SOUZA & RODRIGUES, 2015

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Iphisini, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymRondonops xanthomystax COLLI, HOOGMOED, CANNATELLA, CASSIMIRO, GOMES, GHELLERE, SALES-NUNES, PELLEGRINO, SALERNO, MARQUES DE SOUZA & RODRIGUES 2015 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas, SW Pará)

Type locality: left bank of Rio Abacaxis, São Sebastião, Borba (4°18'32"S, 58°38'11"W), Amazonas, Brazil  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype. MZUSP 98085 (field number MTR 12977); adult female; leg. M. T. Rodrigues, J. Cassimiro, S. M. Souza and J. M. Ghellere, 12 January 2007.
Paratypes. BRAZIL: AMAZONAS: Nova Olinda do Norte: Igarapé-Açu, right bank of Rio Abacaxis (4°20'39"S, 583°8'06"W): MZUSP 99243, 6 January 2007; Borba: São Sebastião, left bank of Rio Abacaxis (4°18'32"S, 58°38'11"W): MZUSP 99244–99246, 99248, 12–25 January 2007; Borba: Palhalzinho, left bank of Rio Abacaxis (4°18'06"S, 58°38'01"W): MZUSP 99247, 25 January 2007. All by the same collectors as for the holotype. PAR: Itaituba (5°27'19.22"S, 57°4'14.09"): MPEG 31109, leg. Team UFPA/Herpetologia, 31 August 2013; Jacareacanga (6°06'2241"S 57°36'19.91"W): MPEG 31103, 31107, 31110, leg. Team UFPA/Herpetologia, 30 September 2012, 27 January and 24 August 2013; (5°27'15.84"S, 57°4'41.02"W): MPEG 31104, leg. Team UFPA/Herpetologia, 13 October 2013; (5°48'03.1"S 57°24'23.4"); MPEG 31105–06, leg. Team UFPA/ Herpetologia, 8 October 2013; (5°44'18.7"S 57°21'18.8"W): MPEG 31108, leg. Team UFPA/Herpetologia, 11 January 2013. 
CommentDiagnosis. Body robust; tail up to 2.7 times longer than body. Limbs pentadactyl, slender; first finger lacking claw. Ear openings and eyelids distinct. Frontonasal single; prefrontals, frontal, frontoparietals, parietals and interparietal present; parietals longer than wide. Collar fold absent. Three pairs of chin shields; third pair reduced. Three supraoculars, anteriormost smallest. Dorsals (including nuchals) in 26–30 rows; nuchals multistriate, wide, imbricate, disposed in two longitudinal and 5–8 transverse regular rows; posterior of forearm insertion becoming progressively narrower, mucronate, with broad and flat keels, and then lanceolate, strongly keeled, imbricate, and mucronate. Occipitals absent. Ventrals very wide, smooth, imbricate, in two regular longitudinal and 15–18 transverse rows, identical in size and shape to nuchals. Scales around midbody 25–28; subdigital lamellae of finger IV and toe IV, respectively 13–17 and 20–26. Males with a continuous series of 19–24 pores, with no gap between preanal and femoral pores; femoral and preanal pores absent in females. Rondonops xanthomystax differs from R. biscutatus by having two longitudinal rows of 5–8 multistriate nuchals (6–10, smooth); scales on sides of neck keeled (smooth); 13–17 and 20–26 infradigital lamellae under finger IV and toe IV, respectively (11–15 and 16– 20); relatively longer fingers and toes. In R. xanthomystax, a wide black stripe covers all of the lateral surface of the head above the upper part of supralabials and extends from nasal to the insertion of the forearm, where it merges with the flank colour; below the black stripe, a bright orange-yellow colour covers the larger part of supralabials, infralabials, and ventral parts of head and throat. In R. biscutatus, the lateral dark stripe is absent and supralabials are strongly mottled with dark brown. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a noun derived from xanthos (Latin transliteration of the Greek ξανθός: yellow) and mustax (Latin transliteration of the Greek μύσταξ: upper lip or moustache) (Liddell & Scott 1889). The name refers to the yellow (in life) upper lip of this species, which strongly differs from that of its congener, where it is strongly mottled with dark brown. 
References
  • COLLI, GUARINO R.; MARINUS S. HOOGMOED, DAVID C. CANNATELLA, JOSÉ CASSIMIRO, JERRIANE OLIVEIRA GOMES, JOSÉ MÁRIO GHELLERE, PEDRO M. SALES NUNES, KÁTIA C. M. PELLEGRINO, PATRICIA SALERNO, SERGIO MARQUES DE SOUZA & MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES 2015. Description and phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and two new species of lizards from Brazilian Amazonia, with nomenclatural comments on the taxonomy of Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Squamata) Zootaxa 4000 (4): 401–427 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. & SILVANA AMARAL 2017. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. IV. Alopoglossidae, Gymnophthalmidae Zootaxa 4269 (2): 151-196
 
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