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Salvadora gymnorhachis HERNÁNDEZ-JIMÉNEZ, FLORES-VILLELA & CAMPBELL, 2019

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymSalvadora gymnorhachis HERNÁNDEZ-JIMÉNEZ, FLORES-VILLELA & CAMPBELL 2019 
DistributionMexico (mountains of north-central Oaxaca)

Type locality: near San Pedro y San Pablo Ayutla, Distrito Mixe, Oaxaca, Mexico (17.00159° N, –96.08443° W; datum = WGS84), 2100 m elevation above sea level  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype. MZFC 28775, An adult female, collected in pine-oak forest on August 22, 2014 (Fig. 3 in HERNÁNDEZ-JIMÉNEZ et al. 2019).
Paratypes. Five, all from the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. A juvenile female (AMNH 84992) from San Pablo Mitla, 1900 m; an adult male (AMNH 91090) from 8.3 km north of Mitla, 2100 m; and an adult female (AMNH 100910) from 2 km west of San Lorenzo Albarradas, 2000 m; all three from Distrito de Tlacolula. An adult female (AMNH 100909) from 12 km (via road) southwest of San Pedro y San Pablo Ayutla, 1760 m, Distrito de Mixe; and an adult female (UIMNH 56849), near Santa Catalina Quierí, 2364 m, Distrito de Yautepec. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Salvadora gymnorhachis differs from all its congeners by lacking a pale vertebral line, and dorsolateral stripes extending only to about the middle of the body (vs other species in which these stripes extend by throughout whole length of the body) (Table 1); Salvadora gymnorhachis also differs from S. grahamiae, S. bairdi, S. mexicana, and S. lemniscata by having 11 maxillary teeth followed by a diastema and three enlarged teeth (9–10+3 in S. grahamiae and S. bairdi; 14–15+3 in S. mexicana and S. lemniscata); it further differs from S. mexicana and S. lemniscata by having fewer than 105 subcaudals (vs more than 124), a divided preocular (vs single in S. mexicana and S. lemniscata); from S. deserticola and S. hexalepis by having second and third supralabials in contact with loreal (vs third, fourth, and sometimes fifth contacting loreal); and from S. intermedia by having six and five scale rows separating dorsolateral stripes on anterior and middle part of body, respectively (vs 3 and 1-2 scale rows separating stripes on anterior and middle part of body, respectively).
 
CommentHabitat: The holotype was found beneath a rock in a transitional area between a crop field and pine-oak forest (Fig. 3A). The distribution of this species undoubtedly has been greatly modified by anthropogenic activities, which has increased the rate of deforestation at the type locality (Fig. 3B in HERNÁNDEZ-JIMÉNEZ et al. 2019). None of the collection sites are located in protected areas.

Abundance: only six specimens of this species have been collected, all between 1960 and 2014. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet comes from the Greek “gymnós”, meaning “naked”, and “ráchḭ” dorsum, in reference that this is the only species of Salvadora that does not have dorsal vertebral stripes and has incomplete dorsolateral ones. 
References
  • HERNÁNDEZ-JIMÉNEZ, CARLOS ALBERTO; OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA, JONATHAN ATWOOD CAMPBELL 2019. A new species of patch-nosed snake (Colubridae: Salvadora Baird and Girard, 1853) from Oaxaca, Mexico Zootaxa 4564 (2): 588–600 - get paper here
 
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