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Salvadora hexalepis (COPE, 1867)

IUCN Red List - Salvadora hexalepis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesSalvadora hexalepis mojavensis BOGERT 1945
Salvadora hexalepis hexalepis (COPE 1867)
Salvadora hexalepis virgultea BOGERT 1936 
Common NamesE: Western Patchnose Snake
G: Westliche Pflasternasennatter
mojavensis: Mojave Patchnose Snake
hexalepis: Desert Patchnose Snake
klauberi:
virgultea: Coast Patchnose Snake 
SynonymPhimothyra hexalepis COPE 1867: 304
Salvadora grahamiae var. hexalepis — GARMAN 1884: 39
Salvadora grahamiae hexalepis — STEJNEGER 1893: 205
Salvadora grahamiae hexalepis — TAYLOR 1938: 492
Salvadora hexalepis klauberi BOGERT 1945
Salvadora hexalepis klauberi — LEVITON & BANTA 1964
Salvadora hexalepis — STEBBINS 1985: 184
Salvadora hexalepis — LINER 1994
Salvadora hexalepis klauberi — LINER 2007
Salvadora hexalepis hexalepis — LINER 2007
Salvadora hexalepis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 660

Salvadora hexalepis mojavensis BOGERT 1945
Salvadora hexalepis mojavensis — BRADLEY & DEACON 1966
Salvadora hexalepis mojavensis — CROTHER 2000
Salvadora hexalepis mojavensis — CROTHER et al. 2012

Salvadora hexalepis virgultea BOGERT 1935
Salvadora grahamiae virgultea BOGERT 1935
Salvadora hexalepis virgultea — SCHMIDT 1940
Salvadora hexalepis virgultea — CROTHER 2000
Salvadora hexalepis virgultea — LINER 2007
Salvadora hexalepis virgultea — CROTHER et al. 2012
Salvadora hexalepis virgultea — THOMSON et al. 2016 
DistributionUSA (S California, Nevada, Arizona, S New Mexico, SW Texas),
Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa)

hexalepis: Type locality: Fort Whipple, Arizona

klauberi: Mexico (Baja California); Type locality: Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico.

mojavensis: USA (California); Type locality: Deadman Point, 11.5 miles south-east of Victorville, at the south end of the Granite Mountains in San Bernardino County, California.

virgultea: USA, Mexico (California, NW Baja California); Type locality: Deerhorn Flat, San Diego County, Calif. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: USNM 7894
Holotype: SDSNH 12025 [virgultea]
Holotype: SDSNH 20912; paratypes SDSNH [klauberi]
Holotype: AMNH, Paratype: SDSNH [mojavensis] 
CommentSubspecies: Salvadora hexalepis deserticola has been elevated to valid species. Recognition of the species S. deserticola was made without justification by Bogert and Degenhardt (1961). Bogert (1945), describes characters justifying the distrinction and states that there are no intergrades. 
References
  • Axtell, Ralph W. 1939. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF THE BLACK GAP WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA, BREWSTER COUNTY, TEXAS. Southwestern Naturalist 4 (2): 88-109
  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Bogert, C. M. 1935. Salvadora grahamiae virgultea, a new sub- species of the patch-nosed snake. Bull. S. California Acad. Sci.,Vol. 34 (1): 88-94
  • Bogert, Charles M. 1945. Two additional races of the patch-nosed snake, Salvadora hexalepis. American Museum Novitates (1285): 1-14 - get paper here
  • Bogert, Charles M.; Degenhardt, William G. 1961. An addition to the fauna of the United States, the Chihuahua Ridge-nosed rattlesnake in New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (2064): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Bradley, W. Glen and James E. Deacon 1966. Amphibian and Reptile Records for Southern Nevada. Southwestern Naturalist 11 (1): 132-134 - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G.; Doria, C.T. & Wigge, J. 2003. Snakes of Zambia. An Atlas and Field Guide. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 280 pp. [review in Sauria 26 (3): 21]
  • Cameron, Scott;Hansen, Robert W. 1994. Salvadora hexalepis (western patchnose snake). USA: California. Herpetological Review 25 (1): 34-35 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1867. On the REPTILIA and BATRACHIA of the Sonoran Province of the Nearctic Region. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18 [1866]: 300-314 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Thomas R. Van Devender, Robert L. Bezy 2014. Amphibians and reptiles of Yécora, Sonora and the Madrean Tropical Zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. Check List 10 (4): 913-926 - get paper here
  • FLESCH, AARON D.; DON E. SWANN, DALE S. TURNER, AND BRIAN F. POWELL 2010. HERPETOFAUNA OF THE RINCON MOUNTAINS, ARIZONA. Southwestern Naturalist 55(2):240–253 - get paper here
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Hazard, Lisa C. 2013. Salvadora hexalepis (western patch-nosed snake) foraging behavior. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 334-335
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Kunz, K. 2015. Dauerbrenner im Terrarium: Nattern Reptilia (Münster) 20 (115): 18-27 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Banta, Benjamin H. 1964. Midwinter reconnaissance of the herpetofauna of the Cape Region of Baja California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 30 (7): 127-156 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W., Copp, J.F., & Breedlove, D.E. 1976. Notes on the herpetofauna of western Mexico: new records from Sinaloa and the Tres Marias Islands. Natur. Hist. Mus. of L.A. Co., Contrib. in Sci. (275): 1-17
  • Schmidt,K.P. 1940. Notes on Texan snakes of the genus Salvadora. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Series 24 (12): 143-150 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stejneger,L.H. 1893. Annotated list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the Death Valley Expedition in 1891, with descriptions of new species. North American Fauna, No. 7: 159-228 (+ 14 plates + 4 maps) - get paper here
  • Sullivan, Brian K. and Weinstein, Scott A. 2017. Foraging and prey handling in the Western Patch-nosed Snake (Salvadora hexalepis), and consideration of venom use in non-front-fanged colubroid snakes Herpetological Review 48 (1): 19-25 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1954. Herpetological notes concerning some reptiles of Utah and Arizona. Herpetologica 10: 92-96 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1985. Snakes of Western Chihuahua. Great Basin Naturalist 45 (4): 615-676 - get paper here
  • Taylor, Edward Harrison 1938. Notes on the herpetological fauna of the Mexican state of Sonora. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 24 (19): 475-503 [1936] - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Thomson, Robert C.; Amber N. Wright & H. Bradley Shaffer 2016. California Amphibian and Reptile Species of Special Concern University of California Press - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Webb, R.G. 1984. Herpetogeography in the Mazatlán-Durango Region of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Vetrebrate Ecology and Systematics - A ribute to Henry S. Fitch; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp. 217-241
  • Werning, Heiko 2012. Die Reptilien und Amphibien des Südwestens. Draco 13 (50): 18-60 - get paper here
  • Zweifel,R.G. and Norris,K.S. 1955. Contributions to the herpetology of Sonora, Mexico:Descriptions of new subspecies of snakes (Micruroides euryxanthus and Lampropeltis getulus) and miscellaneous collecting notes. American Midland Naturalist 54: 230-249 - get paper here
 
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