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Sauromalus ater DUMÉRIL, 1856

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Higher TaxaIguanidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesSauromalus ater ater DUMÉRIL 1856
Sauromalus ater shawi CLIFF 1958
Sauromalus ater multiforminatus (TANNER & AVERY 1964)
Sauromalus ater townsendi DICKERSON 1919
Sauromalus ater tumidus SHAW 1945 
Common NamesCommon Chuckwalla, Northern Chuckwalla 
SynonymSauromalus ater DUMÉRIL 1856: 536
Euphryne obesus BAIRD 1859: 253
Euphryne obesa — BAIRD 1859 (emendation)
Sauromalus obesus — COPE 1875
Sauromalus ater — BOULENGER 1885: 202
Sauromalus interbrachialis DICKERSON 1919: 640 (part.)
Sauromalus obesus — SCHMIDT 1922
Sauromalus obesus — BURT 1933
Sauromalus australis SHAW 1945: 284
Sauromalus australis — LEVITON & BANTA 1964
Sauromalus obesus — STEBBINS 1985: 114
LINER 1994
Sauromalus ater — LINER 1994
Sauromalus australis — LINER 1994
Sauromalus obesus — QUEIROZ 1995
Sauromalus ater — HOLLINGSWORTH 1998: 113, 144
Sauromalus ater — KÖHLER & ZORN 2014

Sauromalus ater ater DUMÉRIL 1856
Sauromalus ater ater — SOULÉ & SLOAN 1966
Sauromalus ater ater — ETHERIDGE 1982: 32

Sauromalus ater multiforaminatus TANNER & AVERY 1964
Sauromalus obesus multiforaminatus TANNER & AVERY 1964
Sauromalus obesus multiforaminatus — TANNER 1970: 22
Sauromalus obesus multiforminatus — ETHERIDGE 1982: 33
Sauromalus ater multiforminatus —HOLLINGSWORTH 1998 (by implication)

Sauromalus ater shawi CLIFF 1958
Sauromalus shawi CLIFF 1958
Sauromalus ater shawi — SOULÉ & SLOAN 1966
Sauromalus ater shawi — ETHERIDGE 1982: 32
Sauromalus shawi — QUEIROZ 1995

Sauromalus ater townsendi DICKERSON 1919
Sauromalus townsendi DICKERSON 1919
Sauromalus townsendi — TAYLOR 1938: 481
Sauromalus obesus townsendi — SHAW 1945
Sauromalus obesus townsendi — ETHERIDGE 1982: 33
Sauromalus ater townsendi — HOLLINGSWORTH 1998 (by implication)
Sauromalus ater townsendi — REYES et al. 2014

Sauromalus ater tumidus SHAW 1945
Sauromalus ater tumidus SHAW 1945: 292
Sauromalus ater tumidus — ETHERIDGE 1982: 33 
DistributionUSA (California, S Nevada, S Utah, W Arizona),
Mexico (Baja California, W Sonora; Espiritu Santo, Partida, San Jose, San Francisco, San Diego, Santa Cruz, San Marcos, Santa Catalina, Isla Ballena [HR 27(1)], Isla Pardo [HR 28(1)], Gulf of California, Mexico).

multiforaminatus: Colorado River from Glen Canyon Dam at Page, Arizona to near Hite and the Henry Mountains, Garfiled County, Utah.

obesus: Type locality: Fort Yuma, California.

australis: Mexico (SE Baja California, from Punta San Gabriel southward to La Paz)

townsendi: Mexico (Sonora)

Type locality: restricted to Espiritu Santo Island.(Smith & Taylor 1950).  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MNHN 813
Holotype: SDSNH 30170; paratypes SDSNH [australis]
Holotype: CAS-SUR 16120 [shawi]
Syntype: UMMZ 3804; Holotype: USNM 4172f [obesus]
Holotype: SDSNH 27323; paratypes SDSNH [tumidus]
Holotype: USNM 64442; C. H. Townsend collector. [townsendi]
Holotype: BYU 11376, adult male, collected June 9, 1954, by Wilmer W. Tanner. [multiforaminatus] 
CommentSynonymy: Hollingsworth (1998) synonymized Sauromalus obesus with S. ater because both forms (including their subspecies) show a wide range of character overlap and variation and are therefore not clearly distinguishable. Sauromales ater DUMÉRIL 1856 was described earlier and therefore has priority to S. obesus. See also Brown et al. (2001) and the ruling in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 61(1): 74-75 (2004) which gave the name Sauromalus ater Duméril 1856 precedence over the name Sauromalus obesus (Baird 1858).

Subspecies: Sauromalus ater klauberi has been raised to species status. See also note for S. obesus (which is a synonym of S. ater according to Hollingsworth 1998).

Type species: Sauromalus ater DUMÉRIL 1856 is the type species of the genus Sauromalus DUMÉRIL 1856.

NCBI taxonID: 65996 [australis] 
EtymologyNamed after its color, Latin “ater, atra, atrum” = dark or black. 
References
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