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Scaphiophis albopunctatus PETERS, 1870

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesAfrican Shovel-nosed Snake 
SynonymScaphiophis albopunctatus PETERS 1870: 644
Scaphiophis albopunctatus — FISCHER 1885: 100
Scaphiophis albopunctatus var. nigropunctatus MOCQUARD 1887: 77
Scaphiophis albopunctatus — GÜNTHER 1888: 333
Scaphiophis albopunctatus — GÜNTHER 1895: 526
Scaphiophis albopunctatus — SCHMIDT 1923: 90
Scaphiopus albopunctatus — ESSEX 1928: 268 (in error)
Scaphiophis albopunctatus albopunctatus — LOVERIDGE 1955
Scaphiophis albopunctatus — BROADLEY 1994
Scaphiophis albopunctatus — BROADLEY 1998
Scaphiophis albopunctatus albopunctatus — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 30
Scaphiophis albopunctatus — CHIRIO & INEICH 2006
Scaphiophis albopunctatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 663
Scaphiophis albopunctatus — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 534 
DistributionUganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, S Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire; except in the east), Congo (Brazzaville), Angola, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria, Togo, Benin, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Guinea (Conakry), Ethiopia

Type locality: “Keta [Kita] (Guinea)” [Ghana]  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: ZMB 6945 
Diagnosis 
CommentSynonymy: after BROADLEY 1994 (not all authors listed in Broadley are listed here).

Description. Rostral very large, wedged between the internasals, which are usually shorter than the prefrontals; frontal large, longer than broad; parietals fragmented, usually an anteriorpair, a lozenge-shaped interparietal and a group of2to 5 posterior parietals; nostril pierced between anterior and posterior nasals; loreals l-3, usually 2, superposed; preoculars l-2; suboculars 2-3 ; postoculars 2-3; anterior temporals 46, posterior temporals not differentiated; supralabials five, (very rarely six), fifth very long; infralabials 79, the first pair in contact behind the mental, the first 2-5 in contact with the single pair of large chin shields. The inside of the upper lip has a flange into which the Iower jaw fits with valve-like precision. Midbody scale rows 19-25, smooth with paired apical pits; ventrals 17-21 in males, 189-228 in females; anal divided; subcaudals 53-76 inmales, 4972 in females (from BROADLEY 1994).

Type species: Scaphiophis albopunctatus PETERS 1870: 644 is the type species of the genus Scaphiophis PETERS 1870.

Distribution: not in Liberia or Sierra Leone fide TRAPE & BALDÉ 2014: 320. 
Etymology 
References
  • Aylmer, G. 1922. The Snakes of Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone Studies 5: 7-37
  • Bauer, A.M.; Günther,R. & Klipfel,M. 1995. The herpetological contributions of Wilhelm C.H. Peters (1815-1883). SSAR Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, 714 pp.
  • Bogert, Charles M. 1942. Snakes secured by the Snyder East African Expedition in Kenya Colony and Tanganyika Territory. American Museum Novitates (1178): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1897. A list of reptiles and batrachians from the Congo Free State, with the description of two new snakes. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 19: 276-281 - get paper here
  • Broadley, D. G. & HOWELL, K. M. 1991. A check list of the reptiles of Tanzania, with synoptic keys. Syntarsus 1: 1—70
  • Broadley, D.G. 1994. A revision of the African genus Scaphiophis PETERS (Serpentes: Colubridae). The Herpetological Journal 4: 1-10
  • Broadley, D.G. 1998. The reptilian fauna of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa). In: Schmidt, K.P. and Noble, G.K., Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgian Congo... [reprint of the 1919 and 1923 papers]. SSAR Facsimile reprints in Herpetology, 780 pp.
  • Broadley, D.G.; Doria, C.T. & Wigge, J. 2003. Snakes of Zambia. An Atlas and Field Guide. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 280 pp. [review in Sauria 26 (3): 21]
  • Broadley, Donald G. and F. P. D. Cotterill. 2004. The reptiles of southeast Katanga, an overlooked 'hot spot'. [Congo]. African Journal of Herpetology 53 (1): 35-61. - get paper here
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Chirio, Laurent and Ivan Ineich 2006. Biogeography of the reptiles of the Central African Republic. African Journal of Herpetology 55(1):23-59. - get paper here
  • Essex, R. 1929. A note on three burrowing reptiles. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 1: 268-270
  • Fischer, J. G. 1885. Ichthyologische und herpetologische Bemerkungen. V. Herpetologische Bemerkungen. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 2: 82-121 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1895. Notice of Reptiles and Batrachians collected in the eastern half of tropical Africa. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 15: 523-529. - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1888. Contribution to the knowledge of snakes of tropical Africa. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1: 322-335 - get paper here
  • Haagner,G.V.; Branch,W.R. & Haagner,A.J.F. 2000. Notes on a collection of reptiles from Zambia and adjacent areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Annals of the Eastern Cape Museum 1: 1 – 25
  • Hughes, B. 2013. Snakes of Bénin, West Africa. Bull. Soc. Herp. France 144: 101-159
  • Largen,M.J. & Rasmussen,J.B. 1993. Catalogue of the snakes of Ethiopia (Reptilia Serpentes), including identification keys. Tropical Zoology 6: 313-434 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1956. On snakes collected in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan by J.S. Owen, Esq. Sudan Notes Rec. 36: 37-56 [1955]
  • Loveridge, Arthur 1929. East African reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum. Bull. US Natl. Mus. (151): 1-135 - get paper here
  • Marques, Mariana P.; Luis M. P. Ceríaco , David C. Blackburn , and Aaron M. Bauer 2018. Diversity and Distribution of the Amphibians and Terrestrial Reptiles of Angola -- Atlas of Historical and Bibliographic Records (1840–2017). Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 4) 65: 1-501 (Supplement II)
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Peters,W.C.H. 1870. Eine Mitteilung über neue Amphibien (Hemidactylus, Urosaura, Tropidolepisma, Geophis, Uriechis, Scaphiophis, Hoplocephlaus, Rana, Entomogossus, Cystignathus, Hylodes, Arthroleptis, Phyllobates, Cophomantis) des Königlich-zoologischen Museums. Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1870: 641-652
  • Pitman,C.R.S. 1974. A guide to the snakes of Uganda. Codicote, Wheldon & Wesley, L., 290 pp.
  • Robertson, I. A. D., B. M. Chapman and N. F. Chapman 1963. Notes on some reptiles collected in the Rukwa Valley, S. W. Tanganyika. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 13, 5(55): 421‑432 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1923. Contributions to the herpetology of the Belgian Congo based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909-1915. Part II. Snakes, with field notes by Herbert Lang and James P. Chapin. Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 49 (1): 1-146
  • Segniagbeto GLazcano. H., Trape J. F., David P., Ohler A., Dubois A. & Glitho I. A. 2011. The snake fauna of Togo: systematics, distribution and biogeography, with remarks on selected taxonomic problems. Zoosystema 33 (3): 325-360. DOI: 10.5252/z2011n3a4 - get paper here
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995. Les serpents du Congo: liste commentée et clé de détermination. Journal of African Zoology 109 (1): 31-50
  • TRAPE, JEAN-FRANÇOIS & CELLOU BALDÉ 2014. A checklist of the snake fauna of Guinea, with taxonomic changes in the genera Philothamnus and Dipsadoboa (Colubridae) and a comparison with the snake fauna of some other West African countries. Zootaxa 3900 (3): 301–338
  • Ullenbruch, K.; Grell, O.; Böhme, W. 2010. Reptiles from southern Benin, West Africa, with the description of a new Hemidactylus (Gekkonidae), and a country-wide checklist. Bonn Zool. Bull. 57 (1): 31-54 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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