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Shinisaurus crocodilurus AHL, 1930

IUCN Red List - Shinisaurus crocodilurus - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaShinisauridae, Diploglossa, Anguimorpha, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesShinisaurus crocodilurus crocodilurus AHL 1930
Shinisaurus crocodilurus vietnamensis SCHINGEN et al. 2016 
Common NamesE: Chinese Crocodile Lizard
G: Krokodilschwanzhöckerechse 
SynonymShinisaurus crocodilurus AHL 1930
Shinisaurus crocodilurus — MÄGDEFRAU 1987
Shinisaurus crocodilurus — GOOD et al. 1993
Shinisaurus crocodilurus — SANG et al. 2009

Shinisaurus crocodilurus vietnamensis SCHINGEN et al. 2016
Shinisaurus crocodilurus vietnamensis SCHINGEN, LE, NGO, PHAM, HA, NGUYEN & ZIEGLER 2016: 252 
DistributionChina (Guangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan), NE Vietnam (Quang Ninh Province)

For a detailed map see Mägdefrau,H. (1987).

Type locality: “Kwangsi”

vietnamensis: NE Vietnam (Bac Giang, Quang Ninh); Type locality: at an elevation of 407 m in Son Dong District, Bac Giang Province, Vietnam by Cuong The Pham. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
ReproductionMating takes place in or near water in August (the warmest month in China). Shinisaurus gives birth to 2 - 7 living young from April to May (viviparous). Newborns are 10-15 cm in length and weigh about 4 grams. 
TypesLectotype: ZMB 34034
Holotype: IEBR 3806 (TYT2012.1SC), Adult male, collected on 02 July 2012; paraypes: IEBR, ZFMK 
CommentType species: Shinisaurus crocodilurus AHL 1930 is the type species of the genus Shinisaurus AHL 1930 and Shinisaurus is the type genus of the family Shinisauridae.

Habitat: Along rivers and washes with densely overgrown banks. These regions are 500-700 above sea level.

Hibernation: Shinisaurus hibernates for 3 - 4 month.

Behavior: Sunbathes on branches hanging over water; jumps into the water and escapes by swimming when aroused. In general, a relatively sluggish lizard that might spend several days without movement in water or on a rock next to water. Swims very well and can stay under water for more than half an hour.

Diet: Crustaceans, fish, tadpoles, water snails and other small freshwater animals.

Taxonomy: Macey et al. (1999) suggested to place Shinisaurus in a separate family, Shinisauridae, following the original suggestion by AHL (1930).

Distribution: Does not occur in Vietnam fide MÄGDEFRAU (1987) and BOBROV (2004, pers. comm.), but listed by SANG et al. 2009.

Genomics: A draft genome has been sequenced by Gao et al. 2017.

Diagnosis (vietnamensis): Shinisaurus crocodilurus vietnamensis ssp. n. differs from the nominate form Shinisaurus c. crocodilurus from China by the following combination of morphological characters: a relatively lower ratio of head height (HH) to head length (HL) and cheek height (CHa) to head length (lower head and cheek); a relatively higher ratio of eye-naris distance (EN) to head length and lower ratios of eye-eye distance to head length and internares distance to head length (snout longitudinally elongated and transversely narrower); and a relatively smaller ratio of orbital diameter (Or) to head length. For further morphological, molecular and ecological separation of the new subspecies from the nominate form see also the section “Comparisons”. 
EtymologyNamed after the Chinese scientist Prof. Shin. Length: up to 40 cm. Weight: up to 150 g. Sexual dimorphism: Males bear a bright red colouring on their throats and bellies. The female belly is white or grey and has slight stripes. 
References
  • Ahl, E. 1930. Beiträge zur Lurch- und Kriechtierfauna Kwangsi's. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde vom 1. April 1930 (privately published); Berlin: 310-332
  • Akeret, Beat 2011. Paludarien und Aquaterrarien – eine kurze Einführung in die Thematik. Draco 12 (46): 4-21 - get paper here
  • Bobrov V.V., Semenov D.V. 2008. Lizards of Vietnam [in Russian]. Moscow, 236 pp.
  • Conrad, J.L. 2004. Skull, mandible, and hyoid of Shinisaurus crocodilurus Ahl (Squamata, Anguimorpha). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399–434
  • Conrad, J.L. 2006. Postcranial skeleton of Shinisaurus crocodilurus (Squamata: Anguimorpha). Journal of Morphology 267(7):759-775.
  • Conrad, Jack L.; Jason J. Head and Matthew T. Carrano 2014. Unusual Soft-Tissue Preservation of a Crocodile Lizard (Squamata, Shinisauria) From the Green River Formation (Eocene) and Shinisaur Relationships. Anatomical Record 297 (3): 545–559 - get paper here
  • Gao, Jian; Qiye Li, Zongji Wang, Yang Zhou, Paolo Martelli, Fang Li, Zijun Xiong, Jian Wang, Huanming Yang, Guojie Zhang 2017. Sequencing, de novo assembling and annotating the genome of the endangered Chinese crocodile lizard Shinisaurus crocodilurus. GigaScience - get paper here
  • Good, David A.; Bauer, Aaron M.;Günther, Rainer 1993. An Annotated Type Catalogue of the Anguimorph Lizards (Squamata: Anguidae, Helodermatidae, Varanidae, Xenosauridae) in the Zoological Museum, Berlin. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl. 69 (1): 45-56
  • Grychta, Udo 1993. Shinisaurus crocodilurus AHL 1930 - Haltung, Ernährung, Geburt und neue Erkenntnisse über die Krokodilschwanzhöckerechse. Sauria 15 (1): 9-10 - get paper here
  • Haas, Georg 1960. On the trigeminus muscles of the lizards Xenosaurus grandis and Shinisaurus crocodilurus. American Museum novitates (2017) - get paper here
  • Hecht, Max K.; Costelli, Joseph, Jr. 1969. The postcranial osteology of the lizard Shinisaurus 1. The vertebral Column. American Museum Novitates (2378): 1-21 - get paper here
  • Hecht, Vera L.; Cuong T. Pham, Tao T. Nguyen, Truong Q. Nguyen, Michael Bonkowski & Thomas Ziegler 2013. First report on the herpetofauna of Tay Yen Tu Nature Reserve, northeastern Vietnam. Biodiversity Journal 4 (4): 507–552
  • Hu, Q.; Jiang, Y. & Zhao, E. 1984. A Study on the taxonomic status of Shinisaurus crocodilurus [in Chinese; translation available online]. Acta Herpetol. Sinica 3 (1): 1-7 - get paper here
  • Huang, Huayuan; Hui Wang, Linmiao Li, Zhengjun Wu, Jinping Chen 2014. Genetic Diversity and Population Demography of the Chinese Crocodile Lizard (Shinisaurus crocodilurus) in China. Plos One - get paper here
  • Kudrajawtsew, S. W. & D. B. Wasiljew 1991. Haltung und Zucht der Krokodilschwanz-Höckerechse Shinisaurus crocodilurus AHL, 1930 im Moskauer Zoo Salamandra 27 (3): 219-221 - get paper here
  • LU Zhou, ZHOU Fang, XIE Bangjie, LUO Yaoxing 2003. Discovery of imminent rare Shinisaurus crocodilurus in Zhaoping County,Guangxi Autonomous Region. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 2003 (2): Page 85-85 - get paper here
  • Macey, J.R. 1999. Molecular phylogenetics, tRNA evolution, and historical biogeography in anguid lizards and related taxonomic families. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 12 (3): 250-272 - get paper here
  • Mägdefrau,H. 1987. Zur Situation der Chinesischen Krokodilschwanz-Höckerechse, Shinisaurus crocodilurus Ahl 1930. Herpetofauna 9 (51): 6-11 - get paper here
  • Mägdefrau,H. & Schildger,B. 1993. Neues von Shinisaurus crocodilurus Ahl, 1930. Herpetofauna 15 (87): 11-16 - get paper here
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Schingen, Mona van; Cuong The Pham, Hang An Thi, Truong Quang Nguyen, Marta Bernardes, Michael <br />Bonkowski, and Thomas Ziegler 2015. First Ecological Assessment of the Endangered Crocodile Lizard, Shinisaurus crocodilurus, Ahl, 1930 <br />in Vietnam: Microhabitat Characterization and Habitat Selection. Herp. Cons. Biol. 10 (3) - get paper here
  • Schingen, Mona van; Flora Ihlow, Truong Quang Nguyen, Thomas Ziegler, Michael Bonkowski, Zhengjun Wu & Dennis Rödder 2014. Potential distribution and effectiveness of the protected area network for the crocodile lizard, Shinisaurus crocodilurus (Reptilia: Squamata: Sauria). Salamandra 50 (2): 71-76 - get paper here
  • Schingen, Mona van; Minh Duc Le, Hanh Thi Ngo, Cuong The Pham, Quynh Quy Ha, Truong Quang Nguyen, Thomas Ziegler 2016. Is there more than one Crocodile Lizard? An Integrative Taxonomic Approach Reveals Vietnamese and Chinese Shinisaurus crocodilurus Represent Separate Conservation and Taxonomic Units. Der Zoologische Garten, 85 (2): 240-260 - get paper here
  • Schingen, Mona van; Quynh Quy Ha, Cuong The Pham, Tuan Quang Le, Truong Quang Nguyen, Michael Bonkowski, Thomas Ziegler 2016. Discovery of a new crocodile lizard population in Vietnam: Population trends, future prognoses and identification of key habitats for conservation Revue suisse de Zoologie 123(2): 241-251
  • Schönecker, Patrick 2014. Gestaltung von Terrarien. Draco 16 (56): 6-29 - get paper here
  • Shen Lan-tian, & Li Han-hua 1982. [Notes on distribution & habits of the lizard Shinisaurus crocodilurus Ahl 1930]. Acta Herpet. Sinica (Pei-ching) 1(1): 84-85 [English translation 1987: Chicago Herpet. Soc., Bull. 22(1): 4-5] - get paper here
  • Sprackland, Robert George 1996. The biology of the Chinese crocodile lizard in captivity. Reptilian 4 (2): 9-15 - get paper here
  • Townsend, T.; Larson, A.; Louis, E.; Macey, J.R. 2004. Molecular phylogenetics of Squamata: the position of snakes, amphisbaenians, and dibamids, and the root of the squamate tree. Systematic Biology 53: 735-757 - get paper here
  • Visser, G. 1989. Chinese krokodilstaarthagedissen (Shinisaurus crocodilurus) in Diergaarde Blijdorp. Lacerta 47 (4): 98-105 - get paper here
  • Wilke,H. 1985. Eingewöhnung, Haltung und Geburt der seltenen Krokodilschwanz-Höckerechsen, Shinisaurus crocodilurus, Ahl, 1930. Sauria 7 (1): 3-4 - get paper here
  • Wölfel, H. 2003. Neuigkeiten von der Krokodilschwanz-Höckerechse Shinisaurus crocodilurus (AHL 1930). Elaphe 11 (1): 22-29
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
  • Zhenchang, XIAO Zhi 2002. Discovery of Shinisaurus crocodilurus in Guangdong Province. CHINESE JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY 2002 (5): 76-77 - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T & Nguyen, QT 2015. Neues von den Forschungs- und Naturschutzprojekten in Vietnam und Laos Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoos 2015 (2): 79-
  • Ziegler, T.; Khac Quyet, L.; Ngoc Thanh, V.; Hendrix, R. & Böhme, W. 2008. A comparative study of crocodile lizards (Shinisaurus crocodilurus AHL 1930) from Vietnam and China. Raffles Bull. Zool. 56 (1): 181-187 - get paper here
  • Ziegler, Thomas & Truong Quang Nguyen 2016. The Vietnamese Crocodile Lizard Represents a Separate Taxonomic Unit: Implications for Conservation WAZA 3/16: 35-36
  • Ziegler, Thomas; Anna Rauhaus, Frank Mutschmann, Phuong Huy Dang, Cuong The Pham, Truong Quang Nguyen 2015. Building up of keeping facilities and breeding projects for frogs, newts and lizards at the Me Linh Station for Biodiversity in northern Vietnam, including improvement of housing conditions for confiscated reptiles and primates Der Zoologische Garten, doi:10.1016/j.zoolgart.2015.09.001 - get paper here
  • Zollweg, M. 2010. Neues zur Geschlechtsbestimmung bei der Krokodilschwanzhöckerechse, Shinisaurus crocodilurus. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (85): 66-71 - get paper here
  • Zollweg, M. 2011. Zu Besuch bei der Krokodilschwanzechse. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (91): 39-46 - get paper here
  • ZOLLWEG, M. 2016. Anmerkungen zum erweiterten Schutzstatus (CITES Anhang I) für Krokodilschwanzechsen (Shinisaurus crocodilurus Ahl, 1930) Sauria 38 (4): 32-40 - get paper here
  • Zollweg, M. & Kühne, H. 2013. Krokodilschwanzechsen - Shinisaurus crocodilurus. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 95 pp. - get paper here
 
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