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Sibynophis geminatus (BOIE, 1826)

IUCN Red List - Sibynophis geminatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Sibynophiinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Boie's Many-tooth Snake 
SynonymColuber geminatus H. BOIE 1826: 211
Lycodon melanocephalus GRAY 1834 (fide MANTHEY 1983)
Enicognathus ornatus SCHLEGEL (fide VOGEL, pers. comm.)
Ablabes melanocephalus — GÜNTHER 1858 (fide MANTHEY 1983)
Herpetodryas geminatus — SCHLEGEL 1837: 194 (partim)
Enicognathus geminatus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 333 (partim)
Enicognathus geminatus — JAN 1866
Polyodontophis geminatus — BOULENGER 1893: 185 (partim)
Polyodontophis geminatus — BOULENGER 1897: 506
Polyodontophis geminatus — DE ROOIJ 1917: 54
Polyodontophis geminatus — LIDTH DE JEUDE 1922: 240
Sibynophis geminatus — BARBOUR 1912
Sibynophis geminatus geminatus — MERTENS 1930
Sibynophis geminatus insularis — MERTENS 1930 (fide MANTHEY 1983)
Herpetodryas prionotus LANTOR 1893 (fide MANTHEY 1983)
Sibynophis melanocephalus — TAYLOR 1965 (fide MANTHEY 1983)
Sibynophis geminatus — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 391
Sibynophis geminatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 673
Sybinophis geminatus — KADAFI et al. 2020 (in error) 
Malaysia (East Malaysia, Borneo: Sarawak),
Indonesia (Nias, Mentawai, Sumatra, Riau Archipelago, Bangka, Billiton, Java, Bali, Lombok),
Philippines (Sulu Archipelago)
David & Vogel:
Indonesia: Bali, Java, Lombok, Sumatra

Type locality: Java  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 3392–93, two males, and RMNH 687, a female (H. Kuhl & J.C. van Hasselt, Dec. 1820–Sept. 1823). 
CommentType species: Coluber geminatus H. BOIE 1826 is the type species of the genus Sibynophis FITZINGER 1843; originally described as a subgenus within Lygophis. See Leviton & Munstermann 1956 for a list of diagnostic characters of Sibynophis.

Type genus: Sibynophis is the type genus of the family Sibynophiidae DUNN 1928, which, according to ZAHER et al. 2012 and CHEN et al. 2013 contains Sibynophis and Scaphiodontophis. Because Sibynophiidae Dunn, 1928, has priority over Scaphiodontophiinae Pyron et al., 2011, ZAHER et al. 2012 synonymize the latter into the former. Howerver, Zaher et al. 2019 show that Scaphiodontophis is more distantly related to Sibynophis and thus use the term Sibynophiidae (while Zheng & Wiens, 2016 used Sibynophiinae).

Distribution: Contrary to previous authors, who recognized only a single species in the range of Sibynophis geminatus, Taylor (1965: 698) considered this species to be restricted to Java, whereas Sibynophis melanocephalus, long considered a synonym of S. geminatus, occured from Thailand to Sumatra and Borneo. We follow Morgan (1973), who demonstrated that the two forms, which are sympatric on Sumatra without evidence of intergradation, are distinct and valid species. 
  • Barbour, Thomas 1912. A Contribution to the Zoögeography of the East Indian Islands. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy 44 (1): 1-203 - get paper here
  • Boie. H. 1826. Merkmale einiger japanischer Lurche. lsis von Oken, Jena. 18-19: 203 - 216 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1897. List of the reptiles and batrachians collected by Mr. Alfred Everett in Lombok, Flores, Sumba and Saru, with descriptions of new species. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 19: 503-509 - get paper here
  • David,P. & Vogel, G. 1996. The snakes of Sumatra. An annotated checklist and key with natural history notes. Bücher Kreth, Frankfurt/M.
  • de Rooij, N. DE 1917. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Il. Ophidia. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 334 S. - get paper here
  • Dunn, E.R. 1928. A tentative key and arrangement of the American Colubridae. Bull. Antivenin Inst. America 2: 18–24.
  • Gaulke, M. 1993. First Record of the Polyodont Snake Sibynophis geminatus geminatus (Boie, 1826) from the Philippines, with a Discussion of Sibynophis bivittatus (Boulenger, 1894). The Herpetological Journal 3 (4): 151-152 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, M. 1994. Contribution to the snake fauna of the Sulu Archipelago, with the description of a new subspecies of Dendrelaphis caudolineatus (GRAY, 1834). The Herpetological Journal 4 (4): 136-144. - get paper here
  • Gray. J. E. 1834. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from the collection of Major - General Hardwicke. Vol. 2. London (1833-1834): 263 pp., 95 plates - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1866. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 16. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Kadafi, A. M., Fathoni, M., Fauzi, M. A., Firmansyah, R., Priambodo, B., & Kurniawan, N. 2020. Study of Species Richness and Structure Community of Herpetofauna on Kondang Merak Forest, Malang, Indonesia. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Advanced Molecular Bioscience and Biomedical Engineering (ICAMBBE 2019) - Bio-Prospecting Natural Biological Compounds for Seeds Vaccine and Drug Discovery, pages 89-95 - get paper here
  • KHOERUNISA, IRA; MIRZA D. KUSRINI, AND ANI MARDIASTUTI 2021. Diversity of snake rescued from residential areas in Greater Jakarta metropolitan area, Indonesia. Media Konservasi 26 (3): 231-238; DOI: 10.29244/medkon.26.3.231-238 - get paper here
  • Kopstein, F. 1938. Ein Beitrag zur Eierkunde und zur Fortpflanzung der Malaiischen Reptilien. Bull. Raffles Mus. No 14: 81-167
  • Lang, Ruud de 2011. The Snakes of the Lesser Sunda Islands (Nusa Tenggara), Indonesia. Asian Herpetological Research 2 (1): 46-54 - get paper here
  • Lang, Ruud de 2012. Snakes of the Lesser Sunda Islands (Nusa Tenggara), Indonesia. Edition Chimaira, 349 pp. - get paper here
  • Lang, Ruud de 2017. The Snakes of Java, Bali and Surrounding Islands. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 435 pp. - get paper here
  • Leviton, A. E., and H. E. Munsterman 1956. The generic status and subfamily relationships of the colubIid snakes of the genus Sibynophis in Madagascar. Occ. Pap. Nat. Hisl. Mus. Stanford Univ. (4): 1-11
  • Lidth DE JEUDE, T.W. VAN 1922. Snakes from Sumatra. Zoologische Mededelingen 6: 239-253. - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • Manthey,U. 1983. Exkursion am Mt. Kinabalu (4101 m), Nordborneo, Teil 3: Checkliste der Herpetofauna oberhalb 600 m ü. NN. Herpetofauna 5 (23): 20-31 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1930. Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Inseln Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa und Flores. Senck. Naturf. Gesell., Frankfurt am Main, Abhandl. 42(3): 117-344.
  • Milto, Konstantin D.; Yury A. Lukin 2020. A Revised Herpetofauna of Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java, Indonesia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 27 (6): 353-368 - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Descriptive. La Haye (J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum), 606 S. + xvi - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1931. The herpetology of Mt. Kinabalu, North Borneo, 13455 ft. Bull. Raffles Mus. 5: 3-32.
  • Stuebing, R.B., Inger, R.F. & Lardner, B. 2014. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo, second edition. Natural history Publications (Borneo)
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Weinell, Jeffrey L.; Errol Hooper, Alan E. Leviton, Rafe M. Brown 2019. Illustrated Key to the Snakes of the Philippines. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 66 (1): 1-49 - get paper here
  • Zaher H, Murphy RW, Arredondo JC, Graboski R, Machado-Filho PR, Mahlow K, et al. 2019. Large-scale molecular phylogeny, morphology, divergence-time estimation, and the fossil record of advanced caenophidian snakes (Squamata: Serpentes). PLoS ONE 14(5): e0216148 - get paper here
  • Zaher, Hussam; feliPe g. graZZiotin, roberta graboski, ricardo g. fuentes Paola sáncheZ-martineZ giovanna g. montingelli ya-Ping Zhang, robert W. murPhy 2012. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Sibynophis (Serpentes: Colubroidea). Pap. Avuls. Zool. 52 (12): 141-149 - get paper here
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