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Sinonatrix annularis (HALLOWELL, 1856)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesE: Red-bellied Annulate Keelback, Ringed Water Snake
Chinese: “Chi Lian Hua You She” ( 赤链华游蛇 ) 
SynonymTropidonotus annularis HALLOWELL 1856: 151
Tropidonotus chinensis JAN 1859
Tropidonotus semifasciatus BERTHOLD 1859 (subst. name for T. chinensis)
Tropidonotus annularis — GÜNTHER 1864: 261
Tropidonotus annularis — GÜNTHER 1888: 171
Tropidonotus annularis — BOULENGER 1893: 233
Tropidonotus habereri WERNER 1903
Natrix annularis — STEJNEGER 1907: 291
Natrix annularis — MELL 1931 [1929]
Sinonatrix annularis — ROSSMAN & EBERLE 1977
Sinonatrix annularis — WANG et al. 1999
Sinonatrix annularis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 677
Trimerodytes annularis — REN et al. 2019 
DistributionTaiwan, China (Fujian, Jiangxi, Chekiang, Anhwei, Kiangsu)

Type locality: China, Ningpo.  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 6640
Syntypes: ZSM 31/0, male; ZSM 32/0 (lost), 2 fe- males; ZSM 33/0 (lost), 3 juveniles; all from “Ning- po-Gebirge, China”, collected by Haberer, 1900 [habereri]
Holotype: ZFMK 33443 [Tropidonotus chinensis] 
CommentType species: Tropidonotus annularis HALLOWELL 1856 is the type species of the genus Sinonatrix. However, Sinonatrix is a junior synonym of Trimerodytes Cope which was resurrected for Trimerodytes balteatus Cope, 1895 (= Opisthotropis balteata) and Sinonatrix by Ren et al. 2019. 
EtymologyNamed after the diminutive form (“annul-”) of Latin “anus” = ring. 
  • Berthold,A.A. 1859. Einige neue Reptilien des akad. zoolog. Museums in Göttingen. Nachr. Georg-August-Univ. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, 1859 (17): 179-181
  • Blackburn, Daniel G. 1999. Are Viviparity and Egg-guarding Evolutionarily Labile in Squamates?. Herpetologica 55 (4): 556-573 - get paper here
  • Böhme, Wolfgang 2014. Herpetology in Bonn. Mertensiella 21. vi + 256 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1888. On a collection of reptiles from China. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1: 165-172 - get paper here
  • Hallowell, EDWARD 1857. Notes on the reptiles in the collection of the museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 8 (4): 146-153 [1856] - get paper here
  • Mell,R. 1931. List of Chinese snakes. Lingnan Sci. Jour., Canton, 8 [1929]: 199-219.
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Rao, DING QI & D. T. YANG. 1998. A new species of Sinonatrix (Serpentes: Colubridae) of China with preliminary survey on Sinonatrix. Russ. J. Herpetol. 5 (1): 70-73. - get paper here
  • REN, Jinlong; Kai WANG, Peng GUO, Yingyong WANG, Tao Thien NGUYEN, and Jiatang LI 2019. On the Generic Taxonomy of Opisthotropis balteata (Cope, 1895) (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae): Taxonomic Revision of Two Natricine Genera. Asian Herpetological Research 10(2): 105–128; DOI: 10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.180091 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, L. 1910. The batrachians and reptiles of Formosa. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 38: 91-114 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang, Y.Q.; Zhou, K.Y.; Xu, L.S.; Yang, G.; Xu, G.J. 1999. The Evolutionary Relationships of Several Colubrid Snakes Suggested by Sequence Analysis of Cyt b Gene Fragment. Acta Zoologica Sinica 45:332-338
  • Werner, FRANZ 1903. Ueber Reptilien und Batrachier aus Guatemala und China in der zoologischen Staats-Sammlung in München nebst einem Anhang über seltene Formen aus anderen Gegenden. Abhandl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wissensch., Munich, (ser. 2) 22 (2): 343-384 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
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