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Sonora semiannulata BAIRD & GIRARD, 1853

IUCN Red List - Sonora semiannulata - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesE: Ground Snake 
SynonymSonora semiannulata BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 117
Lamprosoma episcopum KENNICOTT in BAIRD 1859
Homalosoma episcopum — JAN 1865
Contia isozona COPE 1866: 304
Contia semiannulata — GARMAN 1884: 90
Contia isozona — GARMAN 1884: 92
Contia episcopa — GARMAN 1884: 94
Contia episcopa — MOCQUARD 1899: 319
Contia nuchalis SCHENKEL 1901
Sonora episcopa — STICKEL 1938: 184
Sonora episcopa — FORCE 1928
Sonora semiannulata blanchardi STICKEL 1938: 185
Sonora semiannulata gloydi STICKEL 1938: 186
Sonora miniata linearis STICKEL 1938: 189 (fide SMITH 1945: 130)
Sonora semiannulata linearis — SMITH 1945: 130
Sonora mosaueri STICKEL 1938: 189
Sonora bancroftae KLAUBER 1943
Sonora bancroftae — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945
Sonora episcopa — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945
Sonora mosaueri — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945
Sonora semiannulata blanchardi — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945
Sonora episcopa — WEBB & ORTENBURGER 1953
Sonora episcopa — DOWLING 1959
Sonora semiannulata isozona COPE — BRADLEY & DEACON 1966 ?
Sonora semiannulata — STEBBINS 1985: 212
Sonora semiannulata — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 214
Sonora semiannulata — LINER 1994
Sonora episcopa —SHINE 1994
Sonora semiannulata — CROTHER 2000
Sonora semiannulata semiannulata — DIXON 2000
Sonora semiannulata — CROTHER et al. 2012
Sonora semiannulata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 681
Sonora semiannulata — COX et al. 2018 
DistributionUSA (W Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Oklahoma, S Colorado, S Kansas, SW Missouri, SE Utah [HR 30: 55], California, Arkansas),
Mexico (N Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Tamaulipas, NW Nuevo Leon, NE Durango)

Type locality: Restricted to the Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona (originally stated "Sonora").

blanchardi: Texas

gloydi: Arizona; Type locality: Grand Canyon, Bright Angel Trail.

isozona: Nevada  
TypesHolotype: USNM 2109f
Holotype: UMMZ [blanchardi]
Holotype: UMMZ [gloydi]
Holotype: SDNHM = SDSNH [bancroftae]
Holotype: MVZ 13772 (male) [mosaueri]
Holotype: USNM 11417 [Contia isozona] 
CommentType species: Sonora semiannulata BAIRD & GIRARD 1853 is the type species of the genus Sonora BAIRD & GIRARD 1853.

All species of Sonora possess colour pattern polymorphism, with uniform, striped, banded, bicolour and tricolour morphs known for the different species. 
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  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Bradley, W. Glen and James E. Deacon 1966. Amphibian and Reptile Records for Southern Nevada. Southwestern Naturalist 11 (1): 132-134 - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E. 1935. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16 (3): 311-336 - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2009. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 2nd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
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  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cox, Christian L.; Alison R. Davis Rabosky, Iris A. Holmes, Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Corey E. Roelke, Eric N. Smith, Oscar Flores-Villela, Jimmy A. McGuire & Jonathan A. Campbell 2018. Synopsis and taxonomic revision of three genera in the snake tribe Sonorini. Journal of Natural History 52: 945-988 - get paper here
  • Cox, Christian L.; Alison R. Davis Rabosky, Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Paulino Ponce-Campos, Eric N. Smith, Oscar Flores-Villela & Jonathan A. Campbell 2012. Molecular systematics of the genus Sonora (Squamata: Colubridae) in central and western Mexico. Systematics and Biodiversity 10: 93-108 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Curlis, John D. Jr 2017. Evolutionary Linkage of Mimetic and Non-Mimetic Color Traits in a Coral Snake Mimicry Complex. Thesis, Georgia Southern University 1678 - get paper here
  • Davis DR, LaDuc TJ 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of C. E. Miller Ranch and the Sierra Vieja, Chihuahuan Desert, Texas, USA. ZooKeys 735: 97-130 - get paper here
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Dowling, Herndon G. 1959. The groundsnake, Sonora episcopa, in Arkansas. Southwestern Naturalist 3: 231-232 - get paper here
  • Force, Edith R. 1928. A Preliminary Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Tulsa County. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 8: - get paper here
  • Frost D R 1983. Sonora semiannulata Baird and Girard. Ground snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 333: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Frost, D. R. 1983. The relationships of the ground snakes (genus Sonora) in Baja California, Mexico. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 86: 31-37. - get paper here
  • Frost, D. R., and T. R. Van Devender 1979. The relationship of the groundsnakes Sonora semiannulata and S. episcopa (Serpentes: Colubridae). Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ. 52: 1-9. - get paper here
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Graham, Sean P. and Crystal Kelehear. 2015. Sonora semiannulata (western groundsnake) predation. Herpetological Review 46 (4): 650 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Heitz, Brendan B., Elyse D. Ellsworth, Nicholas A. Huron, Aaron D. Geheber and Cameron D. Siler. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Sonora semiannulata (western groundsnake). Herpetological Review 46 (4): 577 - get paper here
  • Hibbitts, Toby J. and Connor S. Adams. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Sonora semiannulata (western groundsnake). Herpetological Review 46 (2): 221 - get paper here
  • Hunt, J.D., Clause, A.G. & Flaxington, W. 2017. Geographic Distribution: Sonora semiannulata (Western Groundsnake). Herpetological Review 48 (4): 815 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 13. Livraison. [Homalosoma mite]. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • LaDuc, Travis J.;Johnson, Jerry D. 1994. Sonora semiannulata (ground snake). USA: Texas. Herpetological Review 25 (4): 168 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Gadsden-Esparza H, Valdez-Lares R, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 748: 65-87 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Rorabaugh JC 2019. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sonora, Mexico, with updated species lists. ZooKeys 829: 131-160 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, V., Johnson, J. D., Barragan, G., Rocha, A., Lukefahr, W. D. & Couvillon, R. O. 2012. Sonora semiannulata (western groundsnake) predation. Herpetological Review 43: 661-662
  • Mellink, Eric 1996. Geographic Distribution. Sonora semiannulata. Herpetological Review 27 (2): 89 - get paper here
  • Mocquard, M.F. 1899. Contribution a la faune herpétologique de la Basse-Californie. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Natur.Paris, 4th Series, Vol. 1: 297-343 + plates XI-XIII - get paper here
  • Mosauer, Walter 1938. An addition to the reptile fauna of California: Sonora semiannulata. Copeia 1938 (1): 48 - get paper here
  • Nevárez-de-los-Reyes, Manuel, David Lazcano, Elí García-Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The Herpetofauna of Nuevo León, Mexico: Composition, Distribution, and Conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (3): 558–638 - get paper here
  • Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie, E.D., Jr., & Storm, R.M. 1983. Amphibians and reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. Univ. Press of Idaho, Moscow 332 pp.
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  • Persons, Trevor 1999. Geographic distribution. Sonora semiannulata. Herpetological Review 30 (1): 55 - get paper here
  • Pregill, Gregory K.;Berrian, James E. 1984. Type specimens of amphibians and reptiles in the San Diego Natural History Museum. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 20 (10): 151-164 - get paper here
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