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Spalerosophis diadema (SCHLEGEL, 1837)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesSpalerosophis diadema cliffordii (SCHLEGEL 1837)
Spalerosophis diadema diadema (SCHLEGEL 1837)
Spalerosophis diadema schirasianus (JAN 1863) 
Common NamesE: Diadem Snake, Royal Snake
G: Pakistanische Diademnatter 
SynonymColuber diadema SCHLEGEL 1837: 146
Coluber cliffordii SCHLEGEL 1837
Zamenis cliffordii GÜNTHER 1858
Zamenis cliffordii — GÜNTHER 1859: 226
Zamenis diadema — ANDERSON 1871: 174
Zamenis diadema — BOULENGER 1887: 408
Zamenis diadema — BOULENGER 1893: 411
Zamenis diadema — WALL 1911
Spalerosophis diadema — SCHMIDT 1930: 227
Spalerosophis cliffordii - OVADIA 1985
Spalerosophis diadema — DAS 1996: 59
Spalerosophis diadema — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996: 520
Spalerosophis diadema — BAIG et al. 2007
Spalerosophis diadema — WALLACH et al. 2014: 683
Spaleorosophis diadema — RÖSLER & WRANIK 2017 (in error)

Spalerosophis diadema cliffordii (SCHLEGEL 1837)
Coluber guttatus FORSKAL 1775 [non C. guttatus LINNAEUS 1766]: 14
Coluber cahirinus GMELIN 1789: 1115 (nomen novum, nom. oblit.)
Coluber geoffroyii GRAY 1831
Coluber cliffordi SCHLEGEL 1837 (nomen protectum fide SCHÄTTI et al. 2009)
Periops parallelus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 678
Zamenis (Periops) versicolor — BOETTGER 1885: 458
Spalerosophis cliffordii — SCHMIDT 1939
Spalerosophis cliffordii — SCHMIDT & MARX 1956
Spalerosophis diadema cliffordii — SCHNURRENBERGER 1963
Spalerosophis diadema cliffordii — WERNER & FRANKENBERG 1982
Spalerosophis cliffordii — SHINE 1994
Spalerosophis diadema cliffordii — VAN DER KOOIJ 2001
Spalerosophis diadema cliffordii — SCHLÜTER 2005
Spalerosophis cliffordii —TRAPE & MANÉ 2006: 160
Spalerosophis diadema cliffordii — SINDACO et al. 2006
Spalerosophis diadema cliffordii — IBRAHIM 2013
Spalerosophis diadema cliffordii — SINDACO et al. 2014
Spalerosophis cliffordii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 682

Spalerosophis diadema schirasianus (JAN 1863)
Periops parallelus var. schiraziana JAN in FILIPPI 1865
Spalerosophis schirazianus — SCHMIDT 1939
Spalerosophis diadema schirazanus — MINTON 1966
Spalerosophis diadema schirazanus — NILSON & ANDREN 1981: 141
Spalerosophis diadema schirazana — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996
Spalerosophis schirazianus — KHAN 2002
Spalerosophis diadema schirasianus — SCHÄTTI et al. 2010 
DistributionIraq, Iran, Afghanistan, W Pakistan, N India (Rajasthan, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu, Kashmir),
U.S.S.R., S Turkmenistan, S Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan,
Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sinai, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Western Sahara ?, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, N Sudan, Turkey, Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Kuwait, Saudi Arabia

cliffordi: from Morocco to Egypt; Western Sahara, Mauritania, Algeria, Niger (fide TRAPE & MANÉ 2006), Syria, Jordan, Turkey, Iran, Yemen; Type locality: Tripoli, Libya.

schiraziana: Zagros Mts. and the region of Bushire in W Iran, eastwards to S Turkmenistan into Afghanistan and India; Pakistan; Type locality: Shiraz, Iran

diadema: Pakistan, India; Type locality: near Bombay, India fide MARX 1959. According to WALL 1914 and MERTENS 1940 the type locality is actually northern part of the Persian gulf (“from Buchier”). Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesTypes: possibly lost (SCHÄTTI 2010)
Lectotype: RMNH 467A (”whereabouts unknown, fide SCHÄTTI 2010) [cliffordi] 
CommentSchlegel’s description was based on a plate in Russell, Ind. Serp. (1801) ii: 34. Spalerosophis diadema dolichospila, and atriceps have been elevated to species status. KHAN (pers. comm.) considers schiraziana and atriceps as full species; in this case S. diadema does not occur in Pakistan (but schiraziana and atriceps do). However, BAIG et al. (2007) synonymized Spalerosophis diadema schiraziana (JAN 1865) with S. diadema. 
References
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