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Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis STEJNEGER, 1904

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Higher TaxaSphaerodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
SubspeciesSphaerodactylus grandisquamis ateles THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis grandisquamis STEJNEGER 1904
Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis guarionex THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis mimetes THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis spanius THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis stibarus THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966 
Common NamesBig-scaled Dwarf Gecko, Big-scaled Least Gecko, “Cotton ginner” 
SynonymSphaerodactylus macrolepis grandisquamis STEJNEGER 1904
Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis — HEATWOLE et al. 1963
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis phoberus THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis phoberus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 183
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis grandisquamis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 183
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis grandisquamis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis grandisquamis — BAUER 2013 (plates)
Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis grandisquamis — DAZA et al. 2019

Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis ateles THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis ateles THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis ateles — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 182
Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis ateles — DAZA et al. 2019: 169

Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis guarionex THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis guarionex THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis guarionex — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 182
Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis guarionex — DAZA et al. 2019: 168

Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis mimetes THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis mimetes THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis mimetes — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 182
Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis mimetes — DAZA et al. 2019: 170

Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis spanius THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis spanius THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis spanius — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 183
Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis spanius — DAZA et al. 2019: 171

Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis stibarus THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis stibarus THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1966
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis stibarus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 183
Sphaerodactylus grandisquamis stibarus — DAZA et al. 2019: 172 
DistributionPuerto Rico, extreme east; Cayo Santiago, Cayo Algodones, Cayo Batata, Isla Pilleros

Type locality: Luquillo, Puerto Rico.

ateles: SW Puerto Rico; Type locality: Balneario de Boqueron, Puerto Rico.

grandisquamis: Puerto Rico, extreme east; Cayo Santiago, Cayo Algodones, Cayo Batata, Isla Pilleros; Type locality: Luquillo, Puerto Rico.

guarionex: Puerto Rico, northwest and north-central. elevation sea level to 900 ft.; Type locality: Officer's Club Beach, Ramey Air Force Base, Puerto Rico.

mimetes: Puerto Rico, the south; Type locality: 12.3 km SE Patillas, Puerto Rico.

phoberus (invalid): north-central Puerto Rico; intergrades with S. m. grandisquamis near Loiza Aldea; Type locality: Isla Verde (San Juan International Air- port), Puerto Rico.

spanius: Puerto Rico, Cordillera Central, Sierra de Cayey. elevation 1100 ft. to 2800 ft.; Type locality: 17.7 km NE Utuado (about 8 km airline), Puerto Rico.

stibarus: Isla Piñeros; Type locality: Isla Piiieros, Puerto Rico.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: USNM 27007 (grandisquamis)
Holotype: MCZ 81043 [ateles]
Holotype: MCZ 81048 [guarionex]
Holotype: MCZ 81036 [mimetes]
Holotype: MCZ 81023 [phoberus]
Holotype: MCZ 81047 [spanius]
Holotype: MCZ 81022 [stibarus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (grandisquamis): SVL Min/Max (17.79/34.08 mm); midbody scales 36–46 (x̅ 41.2); scales on the snout are rounded (also in S. g. guarionex and S. g. stibarus); head ventral scales with faint keels (contrary to the other species where the keels are more defined); seven toe lamellae on the fourth toe; males with faint head pattern (also in S. g. guarionex and S. g. stibarus); males with faint throat pattern; females without throat pattern; males and females with a large hexagonal black scapular patch; ocelli enclosed on the scapular patch, and patch usually surrounded by a white margin (also in S. g. stibarus and S. g. ateles) (Daza et al. 2019, also for the remaining subspecies).

Diagnosis (ateles): SVL Min/Max (14.38/33 mm); midbody scales 36–42 (x̅ 39.4); nine to ten toe lamellae on the fourth toe; males head pattern absent (also in S. g. spanius); males with no pigmentation on chest, variable pigmentation on throat; males with two light lines extending from the orbits to the scapular patch (also in some S. g mimetes and S. g. stibarus); males and females with a large black scapular patch, ocelli near the edge of the patch; some specimens have the patch surrounded by a white margin (also in S. g. stibarus and S. g. ateles) or absent patch; males with a red head.

Diagnosis (guarionex): SVL Min/Max (12.17/34.2 mm); midbody scales 36–49 (x̅ 41.3); number of dorsal body scales very reduced (around 14) compared to the other subspecies of S. grandisquamis (17–23); rounded snout scales; one internasal scale; low number of escutcheon scales (around 67, other subspecies of S. grandisquamis [73–95]); nine toe lamellae on the fourth toe; males with orange head; males throat patterned (also in S. g. mimetes and S. g. spanius) and variable in females; the scapular patch is the largest among all members of the S. macrolepis complex, especially in females, and is usually hexagonal enclosing the ocelli.

Diagnosis (mimetes): SVL Min/Max (13.3/33.19 mm); midbody scales 31–40 (x̅ 36.1); nine toe lamellae on the fourth toe; males with salt and pepper dorsal pattern; males with very marked lineated or fragmented head pattern; males with blue head (background color); males with reticulate pattern on the gular area; males with or without scapular patch, ocelli on the periphery or enclosed on the patch. The males of this species are superficially similar to the males of S. macrolepis but lack the bicolored scapular patch and the head pattern is less fragmented than in S. macrolepis.

Diagnosis (spanius): SVL Min/Max (14.68/35.68 mm); midbody scales 41–47 (x̅ 43.6); males with elevated number of escutcheon scales (~95); ten toe lamellae on the fourth toe; males with marked lineated head pattern; males with marked reticular pattern; scapular patch reduced to a midcentral rectangle, and ocelli located on the periphery of the patch; scapular patch in contact with nuchal spots (Padilla 2006).

Diagnosis (stilbarus): SVL Min/Max (13.34/29.44 mm); midbody scales 36–41 (x̅ = 38.6); snout scales rounded; five loreal scales; eight toe lamellae on the fourth toe; males with faint lineated head pattern; males with two light lines extending from the orbits to the scapular patch, scapular patch surrounded by white margin, and patch can also have brown color; the ocelli are large in proportion to the scapular patch and are more separated than in any other member of the S. macrolepis species complex (Padilla 2016); males with anterior dorsolateral lines not contacting the scapular patch; males with marked throat pattern. 
CommentHabitat: terrestrial

NCBI taxon ID: 1427979 [ateles]
NCBI taxon ID: 1427980 [guarionex] 
Etymology 
References
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  • DAZA, JUAN D.; BRENDAN J. PINTO, RICHARD THOMAS, ALEXANDRA HERRERA-MARTINEZ, DANIEL P. SCANTLEBURY, LUIS F. PADILLA GARCÍA, RAJESH P. BALARAMAN, GAD PERRY, TONY GAMBLE 2019. The sprightly little sphaerodactyl: Systematics and biogeography of the Puerto Rican dwarf geckos Sphaerodactylus (Gekkota, Sphaerodactylidae). Zootaxa 4712 (2): 151–201 - get paper here
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