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Spilotes sulphureus (WAGLER, 1824)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesSpilotes sulphureus dieperinkii (SCHLEGEL 1837)
Spilotes sulphureus sulphureus (WAGLER 1824) 
Common NamesAmazon Puffing Snake 
SynonymNatrix sulphurea WAGLER 1824: 26
Coluber poecilostoma WIED-NEUWIED 1824
Spilotes poecilostoma — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 221
Phrynonax sulphureus — BOULENGER 1894: 19
Paraphrynonax versicolor LUTZ & MELLO 1920 (fide AMARAL 1926)
Pseustes sulphureus sulphureus — BEEBE 1946: 41
Pseustes sulphureus sulphureus — DUELLMAN 1978: 255
Pseutes sulphureus sulphureus — FUGLER & WALLS 1978 (in error)
Pseustes sulphureus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Pseustes sulphureus — KORNACKER 1999: 129
Pseustes sulphureus — MATTISON 2007
Pseustes sulphureus — CATENAZZI et al. 2013
Spilotes sulphureus — JADIN et al. 2013

Pseustes sulphureus dieperinkii (SCHLEGEL 1837)
Dipsas Dieperinkii SCHLEGEL 1837: 282
Dipsas Dieperinkii — BERTHOLD 1845
Pseustes sulphureus dieperinkii — HOGE & ROMANO 1969
Pseustes sulphureus dieperinkii — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980 
DistributionPeru (Pasco etc.), Ecuador, Brazil (Pará, Alagoas, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Paraíba, Ceara, Sergipe), Bolivia,
Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Trinidad,
Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)]
Venezuela

Type locality: “Habitat in sylvis ad littora fl uminis Japura” [Brazil or Colombia, Rio Jápura from its mouth (Brazil, 03°08'S, 64°66'W) to Araracuara (Colombia, 00°24'S, 72°17'W)] according to the original description and Vanzolini (1981). Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesLectotype: ZSM 1681/0, male, collected by Spix and Martius expedition to Brazil, 1817-1820. 
CommentSynonymy: Brongersma shows that Pseustes has priority over Phrynonax and that Dipsas dieperinkii is a Pseustes, which he considered as a synonym of P. s. sulphureus; present opinion, however, considers it a valid subspecies (Hoge & Romano, 1969, cited in Vanzolini 1986).

Type species: Dipsas Dieperinkii SCHLEGEL 1837 is the type species of the genus Pseustes FITZINGER 1843.

Type species: Natrix sulphurea WAGLER 1824: 26 is the type species of the genus Pseustes FITZINGER 1843 (fide WALLACH et al. 2014: 612). 
EtymologyThe generic name Spilotes is derived from the Greek word spilos, meaning "stained or spotted."
The generic name Pseustes is derived from the Greek word, pseustis, meaning "liar," in reference to the hissing noise used by this snake as a bluff to frighten predators (LEMOS-ESPINAL & DIXON 2013). 
References
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