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Staurotypus triporcatus (WIEGMANN, 1828)

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Higher TaxaKinosternidae, Staurotypinae, Kinosternoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Common NamesMexican Giant Musk Turtle 
SynonymTerrapene triporcata WIEGMANN 1828
Staurotypus triporcatus — WAGLER 1830
Staurotypus Triporcatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 356
Staurotypus triporcatus — GRAY 1864: 451
Claudius pictus COPE 1872: 26
Staurotypus triporcatus — GÜNTHER 1885: 11
Staurotypus triporcatus — BOULENGER 1889
Staurotypus triporcatus — LINER 1994
Staurotypus triporcatus — KÖHLER 2000: 28
Staurotypus triporcatus — RHODIN et al. 2010 
DistributionMexico (Gulf and Caribbean drainages of C/S Veracruz, Tamaulipas, Tabasco, Chiapas, Campeche, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo), Belize, NE Guatemala, W Honduras

Type locality: "Rio Alvarado," Veracruz, Mexico. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: ZMB 127. 
CommentType species: Terrapene triporcata WIEGMANN 1828 is the type species of the genus Staurotypus WAGLER 1830: 137.

Habitat: freshwater (lakes, quiet rivers)

Distribution: not in Yucatan state (Mexico), fide Gonzalez-Sanchez et al. 2017. 
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1889. Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhynchocephalians, and Crocodiles in the British Museum (Natural History). British Museum, London, 311 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598
  • Buskirk, James R. 1997. New locality records for freshwater turtles from the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico [Kinosternon creaseri; Staurotypus triporcatus; Rhinoclemmys areolata]. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 2 (3): 415-416
  • Calderon, R.; Cedeño-Vázquez, J.R. & Pozo, C. 2003. New distributional records for amphibians and reptiles from Campeche, Mexico. Herpetological Review 34 (3): 269-272 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. 1998. Amphibians and reptiles of northern Guatemala, the Yucatán, and Belize. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, xiii + 380 pp. - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Casteñeda, Franklin E., James R. McCranie and Luis A. Herrera. 2013. Staurotypus triporcatus (giant musk turtle, guao do tres filas) predation. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 309
  • Cope, E.D. 1872. Synopsis of the species of the Chelydrinae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (ser. 3) 24: 22-29 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 1963. Amphibians and reptiles of the rainforest of Southern El Peten, Guatemala. Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 15: 205-49. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Gray, J. E. 1864. Description of a new species of Staurotypus (S. salvinii) from Guatemala. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 14: 451-452 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Iverson J B 1985. Staurotypus Wagler. Mexican musk turtles. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 362: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Iverson, John B. 1983. Staurotypus triporcatus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (328): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Iverson, John B. 2016. Staurotypus triporcatus (Northern Giant Musk Turtle) Longevity. Herpetological Review 47 (1): 73
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Kawagoshi, Taiki; Yoshinobu Uno, Chizuko Nishida, Yoichi Matsuda 2014. The Staurotypus Turtles and Aves Share the Same Origin of Sex Chromosomes but Evolved Different Types of Heterogametic Sex Determination. PLoS One 9 (8): e105315. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105315 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Lee, J. C. 2000. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of the Maya world. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,
  • Legler, J.M.& Vogt, R.C. 2013. The Turtles of Mexico: Land and Freshwater Forms. University of California Press, 416 pp.
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McCOY, C. J., CENSKY, E. J., & VAN DE VENDER, R. R. 1986. Distribution records for amphibians and reptiles in Belize, Central America. Herpetological Review 17:28-29. - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • Platt, Steven G. 1993. The natural history of the Mexican giant musk turtle (Staurotypus triporcatus) in Belize. Vivarium 5 (2): 26-27;35
  • Sachsse, W. 2011. Vorschläge für die Sommerhaltung von Wasserschildkröten im Freiland. Elaphe 19 (2): 44-45
  • Schilde, M. 2001. Schlammschildkröten: Kinosternon, Sternotherus, Claudius, Staurotypus. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 136 pp. - get paper here
  • Schilde, M. 2003. Family Kinosternidae. Reptilia (GB) (26): 16-21 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Stuart, L. C. 1948. The amphibians and reptiles of Alta Verapaz Guatamala. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 69: 1-109 - get paper here
  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A., Elí García Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Tamaulipas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 43–113 - get paper here
  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A.; Elí García-Padilla, Francisco E. Leyto-Delgado, and Leccinum J. García- Morales 2015. New records and distributional range extensions for amphibians and reptiles from Tamaulipas, Mexico. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (2): 208-214 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J.; van Dijk, P.P.; Iverson, J.B. & Shaffer, H.B. [turtle taxonomy working group] 2010. Turtles of the World, 2010 Update: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v3.2010 - get paper here
  • Valenzuela, N. 2009. Co-Evolution of Genomic Structure and Selective Forces Underlying Sexual Development and Reproduction. Cytogenet Genome Res 127: 232-241
  • Valverde, J. 2011. Die Schildkröten Mexikos. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (91): 16-23 - get paper here
  • Wagler, Jean G. 1830. Natürliches System der Amphibien, mit vorangehender Classification der Säugetiere und Vögel. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Zoologie. 1.0. Cotta, München, Stuttgart, and Tübingen, 354 pp.
  • Wiegmann,A.F.A. 1828. Beyträge zur Amphibienkunde. Isis von Oken 21 (4): 364-383 - get paper here
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