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Stigmochelys pardalis (BELL, 1828)

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Higher TaxaTestudinidae, Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesStigmochelys pardalis pardalis (BELL 1828)
Stigmochelys pardalis babcocki (LOVERIDGE 1935) 
Common NamesLeopard Tortoise 
SynonymTestudo pardalis BELL 1828
Testudo biguttata CUVIER 1829 (nomen nudum)
Testudo bipunctata GRAY 1831 (ex errore)
Testudo armata BOIE (nomen nudum) in GRAY 1831
Testudo pardalis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 71
Testudo pardalis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 220
Testudo pardalis pardalis — LOVERIDGE 1935
Testudo pardalis babcocki LOVERIDGE 1935
Geochelone (Centrochelys) pardalis — BOUR 1980
Geochelone pardalis babcocki — AUERBACH 1987: 67
Geochelone pardalis babcocki — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 8
Stigmochelys pardalis babcocki — BOUR 2002
Stigmochelys pardalis — BOUR 2002
Stigmochelys pardalis pardalis — BOUR 2002
Stigmochelys pardalis — VALVERDE 2005
Geochelone pardalis — VINKE & VINKE 2005
Psammobates pardalis — LE et al. 2006
Geochelone pardalis — CIMATTI 2006
Stigmochelys (Geochelone) pardalis — BONIN et al 2006
Stigmochelys pardalis —BÖTTCHER 2007
Stigmochelys pardalis pardalis — FRITZ & HAVAS 2007
Stigmochelys pardalis babcocki — FRITZ & HAVAS 2007
Stigmochelys pardalis — FRITZ & BININDA-EMONDS 2007
Geochelone pardalis — LARGEN & SPAWLS 2010: 650
Stigmochelys pardalis —RHODIN et al. 2010 
DistributionS Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania,
Rwanda, Burundi, Zaire, Angola, (Namibia, Mozambique,
Malawi, Zimbabwe, Botswana ?), Swaziland, Zambia

babcocki: Namibia, Uganda, Somalia; Type locality: Mount Debasien, Karamoja, Uganda; Holotype: MCZ, adult female.

Type locality: "Promont. Bonae Spei" (= Cape of Good Hope), Cape Province, Republic of South Africa. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesTypes: Not located; originally in the Bell Collection, part of which was later donated to the OUM (fide KING & BURKE 1989).
Holotype: MCZ R-40003 [babcocki] 
CommentSize: Reaches 70 cm carapace length and 30 kg.

Subspecies: Not recognized by all recent authors as this species shows extensive geographic variation (BONIN et al. 2006).

Reproduction: oviparous. 
References
  • Adler, Ulla 2005. Leopardikilpikonna Geochelone pardalis pardalis) Pikku j ättiläinen. Herpetomania 14 (3-4):24-27.
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  • Le, Minh; Christopher J. Raxworthy, William P. McCord and Lisa Mertz 2006. A molecular phylogeny of tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 450 (2): 517-531 - get paper here
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  • McMaster, M.K. & Downs, C.T. 2006. Do seasonal and behavioral differences in the use of refuges by the Leopard Tortoise (Geochelone pardalis) favor passice thermoregulation? Herpetologica 62 (1): 37-46 - get paper here
  • McMaster, M.K. and C.T. Downs 2013. Seasonal and Daily Activity Patterns of Leopard Tortoises (Stigmochelys pardalis Bell, 1828) on Farmland in the Nama-Karoo, South Africa African Zoology Apr 2013, Vol. 48, No. 1: 72-83.
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