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Thamnophis sirtalis (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Thamnophis sirtalis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaNatricidae, Colubroidea, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesThamnophis sirtalis annectens BROWN, 1950
Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus (HALLOWELL, 1852)
Thamnophis sirtalis dorsalis (BAIRD & GIRARD, 1853)
Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi FOX, 1951
Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis (BLAINVILLE 1835)
Thamnophis sirtalis lowei TANNER 1988
Thamnophis sirtalis pallidulus ALLEN, 1899
Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis (SAY, 1823)
Thamnophis sirtalis pickeringii (BAIRD & GIRARD, 1853)
Thamnophis sirtalis semifasciatus COPE 1892
Thamnophis sirtalis similis ROSSMAN, 1965
Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis (LINNAEUS, 1758)
Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia (COPE in YARROW 1875) 
Common NamesE: Common Garter Snake
annectens: Texas Garter Snake
concinnus: Red-spotted Garter Snake
dorsalis: New Mexico Garter Snake
fitchi: Valley Garter Snake
infernalis: California Red-sided Garter Snake
lowei:
pallidulus: Maritime Garter Snake
parietalis: Red-sided Garter Snake
pickeringii: Puget Sound Garter Snake
similis: Bluestripe Garter Snake
sirtalis: Eastern Garter Snake
semifasciatus: Chicago Gartersnake
tetrataenia: San Francisco Garter Snake
G: Gewöhnliche Strumpfbandnatter 
SynonymColuber Sirtalis LINNAEUS 1758: 222
Tropidonotus concinnus HALLOWELL 1852
Eutainia sirtalis BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 27
Eutainia dorsalis BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 31
Eutainia infernalis — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 26
Eutainia Pickeringii — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 27
Eutainia concinna — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 146
Tropidonotus bi-punctatus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 582
Eutanaeia [sic] sirtalis — SHARP 1890: 149
Eutaenia sirtalis — COPE 1893: 183
Eutaenia sirtalis — BROWN 1899: 421
Tropidonotus ordinatus var. sirtalis — DE GRIJS 1899: 396 (?)
Thamnophis sirtalis — STEBBINS 1985: 199
Thamnophis sirtalis — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 165
Thamnophis sirtalis — LINER 1994
Thamnophis sirtalis — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis sirtalis annectens BROWN 1950
Thamnophis sirtalis annectens — FITCH 1980
Thamnophis sirtalis annectens — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis sirtalis annectens — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 100
Thamnophis sirtalis annectens — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus (HALLOWELL 1852)
Tropidonotus concinnus HALLOWELL 1852: 182
Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus — FITCH 1936
Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus — FITCH 1980
Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus — SCHMIDT & KUNZ 2005: 114
Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus — GRÜBNER 2006
Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus — HALLMEN 2009
Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus — HALLMEN 2013

Thamnophis sirtalis dorsalis (BAIRD & GIRARD 1853)
Eutaenia dorsalis BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 31
Thamnophis dorsalis — MCDIARMID 1963
Thamnophis sirtalis dorsalis — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis sirtalis dorsalis — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi FOX 1951
Eutaenia infernalis GIRARD 1858:148 (part.)
Tropidonotus ordinatus var. infernalis — BOULENGER 1893:207 (part.)
Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi FOX 1951
Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi — GRÜBNER 2006
Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis (BLAINVILLE 1835)
Coluber infemalis BLAINVILLE 1835: 291
Tropidonotus ordinatus var. infernalis — BOULENGER 1893: 207
Thamnophis infernalis — STEJNEGER 1893: 210
Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis — VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1918: 198
Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis — GRÜBNER 2006
Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis sirtalis pallidulus ALLEN 1899
Thamnophis sirtalis pallidulus ALLEN 1899: 63
Tropidonotus obalskii MOCQUARD 1903: 211
Thamnophis sirtalis pallidulus — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis sirtalis pallidulus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 94
Thamnophis sirtalis pallidulus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis (SAY 1823)
Coluber parietalis SAY 1823: 186
Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis — BURT 1935
Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis — GRANT 1937
Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis — ALEKSIUK 1975
Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 98
Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis — SCHMIDT & KUNZ 2005
Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis — HALLMEN 2007
Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis sirtalis pickeringii (BAIRD & GIRARD 1853)
Eutainia pickeringii BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 27
Eutaenia pickeringii — GIRARD 1858: 150
Eutaenia sirtalis pickeringii — COPE 1892: 665
Thamnophis parietalis pickeringii — VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1918: 204
Thamnophis sirtalis pickeringii — FITCH 1941: 575
Thamnophis sirtalis pickeringii — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis sirtalis pickeringii — GRÜBNER 2006
Thamnophis sirtalis pickeringii — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis sirtalis semifasciatus (COPE 1892)
Thamnophis sirtalis semifasciatus — STRATHEMANN 1997
Thamnophis sirtalis semifasciatus — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis sirtalis semifasciatus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 97
Thamnophis sirtalis semifasciatus — HALLMEN 2009
Thamnophis sirtalis semifasciatus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis sirtalis similis ROSSMAN 1965
Thamnophis sirtalis similis — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis sirtalis similis — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 96
Thamnophis sirtalis similis — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis (LINNAEUS 1758)
Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 93
Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis — HALLMEN 2007
Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia (COPE in YARROW 1875)
Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia — SCHMIDT & KUNZ 2005
Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia — HALLMEN 2007
Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionS Canada (incl. Northwest Territories, Manitoba, Alberta, Saskatchewan, New Brunswick, Ontario, Prince Edward Island),
USA (Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, West Virginia, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, NW Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, New Mexico, North Carolina, North-Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, N Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West-Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming), Mexico, Bahamas [Buckner & Franz 1998]

annectens: EC Texas; disjunct population in SW Kansas., adjacent Oklahoma ?, and Texas panhandle; Type locality: Type-locality, "a small branch of Boggy Creek, one mile east of Austin, Travis County, Texas."

concinnus: USA (Washington, Oregon); Type locality: Type-locality, "Oregon," probably in lower Willamette Valley near Oregon City (Fitch, 1941:580).

dorsalis: USA (Rio Grand Valley from NC New Mexico south to vicinity of El Paso, W Texas; disjunct populations in NE New Mexico); Mexico (Jalisco); Type locality: "between Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico and the Rio Grande," perhaps in error for Rio Grande Valley in New Mexico.

fitchi: USA (California, Oregon, Idaho, Utah); Type locality: "Gray-lodge Refuge, 9 mi W of Gridley, Butte Co., California."

infernalis: USA (California); Type locality: "California."

lowei: Mexico (Chihuahua); Type locality: “Yepómera, Chihuahua, Mexico.”

pallidulus: S Quebec, from the eastern shore of James Bay to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Nova Scotia, and south in New England to extreme NE Massachusetts.

parietalis: Canada (S Alberta and Manitoba); USA (E Nevada, S Idaho, S through central New Mexico, lowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Oklahoma, Missouri westward to Utah, N Texas); Mexico (N Chihuahua, Coahuila, Tamaulipas); Type locality: Stone quarry on west side of Missouri River, 3 miles above the mouth of Boyers River.

pickeringii: USA (Washington); Type locality: "Puget Sound, Washington."

semifasciatus: NE Illinois, adjacent portions of Indiana and Wisconsin; Type locality: "Aux Plaines [=Des Plaines], Illinois."

similis: W Florida from Wakulla Co. to the Tithlacoochee R.

sirtalis: S Canada (Ontario, Quebec), through USA, Gulf of Mexico, west to Minnesota and SE Texas; Type locality: “Canada”; Quebec County, Quebec [neotype] Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesNeotype: FMNH 73660
Holotype: ANSP 6324 [concinnus] 
CommentTypes: Boundy and Rossman (1995) found that the holotype of infernalis is a specimen of tetrataenia, and proposed replacement of the latter name with the older name infernalis, for San Francisco Gartersnake. It is possible that the holotype of T. s. infernalis is a specimen of T. s. tetrataenia, formally rendering the name tetrataenia a junior synonym of infernalis. It is proposed that the holotype of infernalis be set aside and a neotype designat ed in accord with accustomed usage [from BARRY 1998].

Subspecies and variation: Benton (1980) found that T. s. semifasciata has no constant distinguishing features and considers it as taxonomically invalid. Boundy and Rossman (1995) referred to concinnus the populations formerly referred to as infernalis on the basis of color pattern similarities. Mooi et al. (2011) found erythristic and melanistic variants in this spcies, and extreme intrapopulational variation, suggesting that subspecies of T. sirtalis based on color are of questionable.

Taxonomy: Barry et al. (1996) have petitioned the ICZN to suppress the changes proposed by Boundy and Rossman. Benton (1980) synonymized semifasciatus with the nominate race (cited from CROTHER 2000).

Barry (1998) proposed “... to conserve the usage of the subspecific names of Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis (Blainville, 1835) for the California red-sided garter snake (family COLUBRIDAE) which is found along the Californian coast, and of T. s. tetrataenia (Cope in Yarrow, 1875) for the San Francisco garter snake from the restricted area of the San Francisco Peninsula.

Reproduction: ovoviviparous, viviparous.

Behavior: While most Thamnophis are diurnal, T. sirtalis is at least partially nocturnal, e.g. during hot weather (Rossman et al. 1996). 
References
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