Toenayar novemcarinata (ANDERSON, 1871)
Can you confirm these amateur observations of Toenayar novemcarinata?
|Higher Taxa||Scincidae, Mabuyinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)|
|Common Names||E: Anderson's Mabuya, Nine-keeled Sun Skink|
|Synonym||Euprepes novemcarinatus ANDERSON 1871: 12|
Mabuya novemcarinata — BOULENGER 1887: 179
Mabuia doriae BOULENGER 1887 (fide SMITH 1935)
Mabuya novemcarinata — SMITH 1935: 261
Mabuya novemcarinata — TAYLOR 1963: 941
Mabuya novemcarinata — ZUG et al. 1998
Eutropis novemcarinata — MAUSFELD et al. 2002
Eutropis novemcarinata — GRISMER 2011: 579
Toenayar novemcarinata — KARIN et al. 2016
|Distribution||Sunda Region, India, Thailand, Burma (= Myanmar), Peninsular Malaysia|
Type locality: “Mandalay, Upper Burmah” [= Burma]
|Types||Holotype: ZSI (fide Smith 1935), where it cannot be located at present (Das et al. 1998)|
Holotype: BMNH 1818.104.22.168 [doriae]
|Comment||Distribution: Not listed for India by DAS 1996 but by DAS 1997, 2003. Occurrence in India is questionable as there are no known/published records. This species has not been seen on Penang island since the report of Flower 1896.|
Type species: Euprepes novemcarinatus ANDERSON 1871: 12 is the type species of the genus Toenayar KARIN et al. 2016.
Description (genus): A medium-sized (SVL to 90mm), robust skink with well- developed limbs, 32–34 scale rows around the midbody, 7–11 keels on the dorsal scales, adpressed hindlimbs reaching the wrist of the forelimb, 17–21 subdigital lamellae under toe IV, suprana- sals in contact or slight separation, prefrontals separated or in slight contact, parietals almost always separated by interparietal, frontal in contact with first and second supraocular, one pair of nuchals present, equal in width to two or three adjacent rows of cycloid scales; ear opening with two anterior lobules; 26 presacral vertebrae; palatal rami separated (i.e. open palate); males possess three enlarged, opaque-white heel scales, whereas females do not (Horton, 1973; Smith, 1935; Taylor, 1963; this study). Color of dor- sum light brown, with irregular black spotting; color of thick lat- eral stripes dark black-brown beginning at the nostril and diminishing posterior to the base of the tail; color of venter cream.
Comparisons: The following collective characters distinguish Toenayar from
all closely related taxa in the Mabuya group. Toenayar differs from Mabuya in the number of presacral vertebrae (26 vs. >27, respec- tively) and from most species by having keeled (versus smooth) dorsal scales (Greer et al., 2000; Mausfeld et al., 2002); from Eume- cia in having pentadactyl limbs (versus limb and digital reduction) and Eumecia and Eutropis by having an undivided transparent disk in the lower eyelid and 7–11 keels on the dorsal scales (versus lower eyelid scaly or having greater or less than three keels on dor- sal scales); from Dasia by the separation of the palatine bones (open palate) and further by the possession of an undivided trans- parent disk in the lower eyelid; from Heremites and Trachylepis by the presence of enlarged, differentiated heel scales in males (and enlarged, undifferentiated heel scales in females), and additionally from the vast majority of Trachylepis by possessing 7–11 keels on the dorsal scales; and from Chioninia and Vietnascincus by having 32–34 midbody scale rows and no postnasal scale. Toenayar shares with it’s closest relative, Dasia, male possession of enlarged, differ- entiated heel scales, however in Toenayar there are three enlarged scales and in Dasia there are two (Greer, 1970).
|Etymology||The generic name comes from the mythology of Myanmar, in which the Toenayar (Pronunciation: ‘‘Toh-Ay-Nah-Yar”), from the Burmese language, is a mythical Dragon or serpent with four legs. The Burmese language has no grammatical gender, but we treat the scientific name, Toenayar, as feminine.|
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