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Toxicocalamus misimae MCDOWELL, 1969

IUCN Red List - Toxicocalamus misimae - Data Deficient, DD

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Misima Island forest snake 
SynonymToxicocalamus (Toxicocalamus) misimae MCDOWELL 1969: 470
Toxicocalamus misimae — WELCH 1994: 113
Toxicocalamus misimae — KRAUS 2009
Toxicocalamus misimae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 732
Toxicocalamus misimae — O’SHEA et al. 2015 
DistributionPapua New Guinea (Louisiade Archipelago: endemic to Misima Island)

Type locality: Misima Island, Milne Bay Province  
TypesHolotype: AMNH 76684 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Differing from T. (T.) longissimus in having 15 scale rows (as opposed to 17), and in having fewer ventrals (231 in male, against 262 to 305); T. (T.) misimae resembles T. (T.) stanleyanus in these features (although the ventral count is in the lowest part of the range for that species), but differs from T. (T.) stanleyanus and resembles T. (T.) longissimus in having the anal divided, six supralabials with the third and fourth entering the eye (against five supralabials with the second and third entering the eye), in having a pair of broad dark stripes running along the ventrals and subcaudals, in lacking an external process of the palati~e, and in having an egg-shaped venom gland that does not extend down behind the comer of the mouth. In having two postoculars, symmetrically and with the lower postocular just meeting the anterior temporal, T. (T.) misimae differs from both the other species of its subgenus. 
CommentKnown only from 6 specimens (Kraus 2009, O’Shea & Kaiser 2018).

Habitat: fossorial (digging)

Behavior: diurnal

EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Kraus, Fred 2009. NEW SPECIES OF TOXICOCALAMUS (SQUAMATA: ELAPIDAE) FROM PAPUA NEW GUINEA. Herpetologica 65 (4): 460 - get paper here
  • McDowell, Samuel B. 1969. Toxicocalamus, a New Guinea genus of snakes of the family Elapidae. Journal of Zoology, London 159: 443-511 - get paper here
  • O'Shea,M. 1996. A Guide to the Snakes of Papua New Guinea. Independent Publishing, Port Moresby, xii + 239 pp. - get paper here
  • O’Shea M and Kaiser H. 2018. Erroneous Environs or Aberrant Activities? Reconciling Unexpected Collection Localities for Three New Guinea Worm-eating Snakes (Toxicocalamus, Serpentes, Elapidae) Using Historical Accounts. Herpetological Review 49 (2): 189–207 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, Mark; Allen Allison, Hinrich Kaiser 2018. The taxonomic history of the enigmatic Papuan snake genus Toxicocalamus (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae), with the description of a new species from the Managalas Plateau of Oro Province, Papua New Guinea, and a revised dichotomous key. Amphibia-Reptilia 39 (4): 403-433 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, Mark; Fred Parker, and Hinrich Kaiser 2015. A New Species of New Guinea Worm-Eating Snake, Genus Toxicocalamus (Serpentes: Elapidae), From the Star Mountains of Western Province, Papua New Guinea, With a Revised Dichotomous Key to the Genus. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 161 (6): 241-264. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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