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Trapelus persicus (BLANFORD, 1881)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesTrapelus persicus persicus (BLANFORD 1881)
Trapelus persicus fieldii (HAAS & WERNER 1969) 
Common NamesE: Olivier’s (Horny-scaled) Agama, Baluch ground agama
G: Ruinenagame, Syrische Agame, Dornschuppenhautagame
E: Anderson's Agama, Persia Agama (blanfordi)
F: agame à peau rugueuse 
SynonymAgama persica BLANFORD 1881: 674
Agama persica — BOULENGER 1885: 345
Agama persica — HAAS 1957
Agama blanfordi ANDERSON 1966 (nom. nov. pro Agama persica)
Agama blanfordi — WERMUTH 1967: 10
Trapelus persicus — MACEY et al. 2000
Trapelus ruderatus — RASTEGAR-POUYANI 2000
Trapelus lessonae — RASTEGAR-POUYANI 2000: 91
Trapelus persicus — DISI et al. 2001
Trapelus lessonae — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Trapelus persicus — ŠMÍD et al. 2014
Trapelus persicus — YOUSEFKHANI et al. 2016
Trapelus persicus — SHAHAMAT et al. 2020

Trapelus persicus fieldii (HAAS & WERNER 1969)
Agama persicus fieldii HAAS & WERNER 1969: 337
Agama persica BOULENGER 1920
Agama blanfordi fieldi — WERNER 1971
Trapelus blanfordi MOODY 1980
Agama (Trapelus) blanfordi fieldi — ARNOLD 1986
Trapelus blanfordi fieldi — AL-QURAN 2009
Trapelus ruderatus fieldi — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Trapelus persicus fieldi — AMR 2011
Trapelus ruderatus fieldi — AL-SHAMMARI 2012
Trapelus persicus fieldii — DISI et al. 2014
Trapelus persicus fieldi — AFRASIAB et al. 2018 
DistributionSyria, Lebanon, Jordan, N Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran

ruderatus: Type locality: restricted to “near Ispahan,” = Isfahan, in central Iran (ANANJEVA et al. 2013). The former type locality, established by Rastegar-Pouyani (2000), between Bandar-e-Ganaveh-Borazjan (50°45'E, 29°35'W), Bushehr Province, SW Iran, is invalid fide Ananjeva et al. 2013.

fieldii: Jordan, Saudi Arabia; Type locality: Between Al-Qaysumeh and Turaif, NE Saudi Arabia

blanfordi (invalid): Jordan, N Saudi Arabia, S Iraq, SW Iran (Kavir desert), Kuwait, E Syria; Type locality: Dehbid and Kázrun. Type locality: Arabian Peninsula; “Perse et au Nord de l’Arabie” (fide WERMUTH 1967)

lessonae (invalid): Lebanon, Turkey (Anatolia), S Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, W Jordan, Iraq, W Iran; Type locality: “Persia”  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1946.8.11.30 (ex. BMNH 79.8.15.43), BMNH 1946.8.11.39-42 (ex. BMNH 79.8.15.39-42)
Holotype: MCZ 56866 [fieldii] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (persicus): Dorsal scales heterogeneous, back and flanks with intermixed scales ofvarying sizes; ventral body scales distinctly keeled; at least anterior oval vertebral spots linked together to form undulating gray or lavender stripe on neck and back, bordered by darker brown stripes extending onto dorsal surface ofhead; male with distinct gular sac.

Color pattern: A dark stripe on side of neck extends across temporal region to eye, and a brown stnpe crosses head at level ofanterior part ofthe orbits. There is a tendency for the paravertebral light spots to link together to form longitudinal lines, these elements partIcularly noticeable in the young. In mature males the dorsal pattem is less distinct, and back and flanks are flecked with white. Often these white flecks are single, slightly enlarged scales, and the effect is to make these scales look larger, the pholidosis more heterogeneous (Fig. B in key, page 100). All have a pattem of six crossbars containing vertebral and paravertebral light spots from shoulders to sacrum. (Anderson 1999: 104, Figs. 52 b,d)

Diagnosis (fieldi): Dorsal scales heterogeneous, back and flanks with intermixed scales of varying sizes; ventral body scales distinctly keeled; conspicuous dorsal pattern ofdark and light longitudinal stripes and a distinct, though fainter, vertebral pattern. 
CommentSynonymy: T. persicus has been synonymized with T. ruderatus (by Rastegar-Pouyani 1999) and then revalidated by Ananjeva 2013, hence there has been some confusion with T. ruderatus (see that entry), reflected in very different range maps for the two species.

Habitat: Hosseinian-Yousefkhani et al. 2016 analyzed ecological niches of T. ruderatus and T. persicus but their paper is rather vague about actual habitats. It seems that T. pesicus has a strong preference for the lowlands while ruderatus is more of a highland species (see also maps in Smid et al. 2014: 76).

Types: RASTEGAR-POUYANI (2000) showed that the specimen considered to be the holotype of Agama ruderata (MNHN 2610) was in fact referable to another species, Trapelus persicus (Blanford, 1881) (see ANDERSON, 1999). See also synonymy.

Distribution: See map in SMID et al. 2014: 76 (map 21, 22) for distribution in Iran. For a combined map of T. ruderatus and T. persicus see Sindaco & Eremchenko 2008: 331 (map 102). Distribution needs correction for split of ruderatus and persicus.

NCBI taxonID: 2689121 [lessonae] 
EtymologyEtymology (blanfordi): Agama blanfordi has been named after William Thomas Blanford (1832 - 1905), member of the Geological Survey of India.

Etymology (lessonae): Named after Michele Lessona, Italian zoologist. 
References
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