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Trilepida macrolepis (PETERS, 1858)

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Epictinae, Epictini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesBig-scaled Blind Snake 
SynonymStenostoma macrolepis PETERS 1858
Stenostoma (Tricheilostoma) macrolepis - JAN 1861
Glauconia macrolepis — BOULENGER 1893: 69
Leptotyphlops macrolepis - RUTHVEN 1922: 64
Leptotyphlops ihlei BRONGERSMA 1933
Leptotyphlops macrolepis — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Leptotyphlops macrolepis — STARACE 1998: 77
Leptotyphlops macrolepis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 35
Leptotyphlops macrolepis — ROCHA et al. 2004
Tricheilostoma macrolepis — ADALSTEINSSON, BRANCH, TRAPE, VITT & HEDGES 2009
Trilepida macrolepis — HEDGES 2011
Tricheilostoma macrolepis — PINTO & FERNANDES 2012
Tricheilostoma macrolepis — BARKER et al. 2012
Trilepida macrolepis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 739 
DistributionPanama, Colombia (Valle del Cauca), Venezuela (Cojedes), Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, N Brazil (Para, Rio de Janeiro), Ecuador

Type locality: “Carácas, Puerto Cabello” [Venezuela], restricted to “Puerto Cabello” by designation of the lectotype. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesLectotype: ZMB 1434 (designated by OREJAS-MIRANDA 1967)
Paralectotypes: ZMB 5294, 5722 
CommentType species: Stenostoma macrolepis PETERS 1857 is the type species of the genus Trilepida HEDGES 2011.

Diagnosis (genus): Species of Trilepida have 14 midbody scale rows, 12 midtail scale rows, 173–288 middorsal scale rows, 6–16 subcaudals, three (two in G. greenwelli) supralabials, small anterior supralabials (large in G. sundewalli), 112–188 mm maximum adult total length, a body shape of 24–69.2 (total length/width), a relative tail length of 2.4–7.0 %, a tail shape of 1.4–4.3, no striped pattern, a brown dorsum (unpigmented in G. greenwelli), and paler brown venter (Table 2). They are distinguished from the other genus in this tribe, Rhinoleptus, by having 14 midbody scale rows (versus 16), 12 midtail rows (versus 14), 173–288 middorsal rows (versus 302–546), 6–16 subcaudals (versus 21–28), and a body shape of 24–69.2 (versus 67–77) [ADALSTEINSSON et al. 2009].

Diagnosis (speices). Trilepida macrolepis is distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: snout truncate in dorsal and ventral view, rounded in lateral view; supraocular present; ocular subhexagonal with rounded shape at the eye level; enlarged eyes occuping most ocular width; rostral subtriangular in dorsal view not reaching ocular level; frontal longer than other midsaggital head scales; temporal distict; three supralabials (2+1); four infralabials; 211–243 middorsal scales in females and 218–243 in males; 217–225 midventral scales in females and 204–221 in males; 18–24 subcaudal scales in males and 16–21 in females; fused caudals present; 10 scales around the middle of tail; dorsum uniformly dark brown to black on seven dorsal scale rows, contrasting with the pale brown to brown covering the centre of scales on the seven lateroventral rows (adapted from PINTO-RICHARD et a. 2010). 
EtymologyEtymology (genus): from classical Greek, feminine, meaning three scales, in allusion to the presence of presence of three supralabials. 
References
  • Adalsteinsson, S.A.; Branch, W.R.; Trapé, S.; Vitt, L.J. & Hedges, S.B. 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae (Reptilia, Squamata). Zootaxa 2244: 1-50 - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Brongersma,L.D. 1933. A new species of Leptotyphlops from Surinam. Zoologische Mededelingen 15: 175-176 - get paper here
  • Frota, J.G. da; Pedroso dos Santos-Jr, Alfredo; Menezes-Chalkidis, H. de & Guimarães Guedes, A. 2005. AS SERPENTES DA REGIÃO DO BAIXO RIO AMAZONAS, OESTE DO ESTADO DO PARÁ, BRASIL (SQUAMATA). Biociências 13 (2): 211-220
  • Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
  • HEDGES, S. BLAIR 2011. The type species of the threadsnake genus Tricheilostoma Jan revisited (Squamata, Leptotyphlopidae). Zootaxa 3027: 63–64 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1861. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 2. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Markezich, A.L. 2002. New distribution records of reptiles from Western Venezuela. Herpetological Review 33 (1): 69-74 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mendes-Pinto, T. J. & S. Marques de Souza 2011. Preliminary assessment of amphibians and reptiles from Floresta Nacional do Trairão, with a new snake record for the Pará state, Brazilian Amazon. Salamandra 47 (4): 199-206 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1966. Notas sobre la Familia Leptotyphlopidae, I. Revalidación de Leptotyphlops cupinensis Bailey & Carvalho, 1946. II. Sinonimización de L. ihlei Brongersma, 1933 con L. macrolpis (Peters, 1881). Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo 9 (108): 1-3
  • Passos, P.; Daramaschi, U. & Pino, R.R. 2005. Rediscovery and redescription of Leptotyphlops salgueiroi AMARAL, 1954 (Squamata, Serpentes, Leptotyphlopidae). Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro (Zoologia) (520): 1-10 - get paper here
  • Pedroza-Banda, Raúl; Jhon Jairo Ospina-Sarria, Teddy Angarita-Sierra, Marvin Anganoy-Criollo, John D. Lynch 2014. Estado de la fauna de anfibios y reptiles del Casanare Ciencias naturales Estado del conocimiento de la fauna de anfibios y reptiles del departamento de Casanare, Colombia. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. 38 (146): 17-34 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1858. Vier neue amerikanische Schlangen aus der Familie der Typhlopinen und darüber einige vorläufige Mittheilungen. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1857 (August): 402 [1857] - get paper here
  • Pinto, Roberta R. and Ronaldo Fernandes 2012. A New Blind Snake Species of the Genus Tricheilostoma from Espinhaço Range, Brazil and Taxonomic Status of Rena dimidiata (Jan, 1861) (Serpentes: Epictinae: Leptotyphlopidae). Copeia 2012 (1): 37-48. - get paper here
  • PINTO, ROBERTA R.; PAULO PASSOS, JOSÉ RANCES CAICEDO-PORTILLA, JUAN CAMILO ARREDONDO & RONALDO FERNANDES 2010. Taxonomy of the Threadsnakes of the tribe Epictini (Squamata: Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) in Colombia. Zootaxa 2724: 1–28 - get paper here
  • Rivas Fuenmayor, Gilson and Cesar Luis Barrio Amorós 2005. New Amphibian and Reptile records from Cojedes State, Venezuela. Herpetological Review 36 (2):205-209. - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • ROCHA, CARLOS FREDERICO D.; HELENA G.BERGALLO, JOSÉ P. POMBAL JR., LENA GEISE, MONIQUE VAN SLUYS, RONALDO FERNANDES, ULISSES CARAMASCHI 2004. FAUNA DE ANFÍBIOS, RÉPTEIS E MAMÍFEROS DO ESTADO DO RIO DE JANEIRO, SUDESTE DO BRASIL Publ. Avul. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro (104): 3-23 - get paper here
  • Rojas-Morales, Julián Andrés, Héctor Fabio Arias-Monsalve y Gustavo A. González-Durán 2014. Anibios y reptiles de la región centro-sur del departamento de Caldas, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 15 (1): 73-93 - get paper here
  • Ruthven, A. G. 1922. The amphibians and reptiles of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Univ. Michigan Mus. Zool., Misc. Publ. (8): 70 pp. - get paper here
  • Salazar-Valenzuela D, Martins A, Amador-Oyola L, Torres-Carvajal O. 2015. A new species and country record of threadsnakes (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae: Epictinae) from northern Ecuador. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (1) [Special Section]: 107–120 - get paper here
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Valencia-Zuleta A, Jaramillo-Martínez AF, Echeverry-Bocanegra A, Viáfara-Vega R, Hernández-Córdoba O, Cardona-Botero VE, Gutiérrez-Zúñiga J, Castro-Herrera F. 2014. Conservation status of the herpetofauna, protected areas, and current problems in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2): 1–18 (e87) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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