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Trimeresurus cardamomensis (MALHOTRA, THORPE, MRINALINI & STUART, 2011)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesCardamom Mountains Green Pitviper 
SynonymCryptelytrops cardamomensis MALHOTRA, THORPE, MRINALINI & STUART 2011
Trimeresurus macrops KRAMER 1977
Trimeresurus macrops — KRAMER (1977): 757 (part)
Trimeresurus macrops — REGENASS and KRAMER (1981):184 (part);
Trimeresurus macrops — GUMPRECHT (1998): 25 (part)
Trimeresurus macrops — ORLOV et al. (2002a): 193 (part)
Trimeresurus macrops — ORLOV et al. (2002b): 353 (part)
Trimeresurus macrops — GUMPRECHT et al. (2004): 230 (part)
Cryptelytrops macrops — STUART and EMMETT (2006): 23
Cryptelytrops macrops — GRISMER et al. (2007): 232
Cryptelytrops macrops — GRISMER et al. (2008a): 24
Cryptelytrops macrops — GRISMER et al. (2008b): 166
Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) cardamomensis — DAVID et al. 2011
Trimeresurus cardamomensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 741 
DistributionSE Thailand, Cambodia (Koh Kong Province)

Type locality: root of a strangler fig growing from a tree trunk 1 m above the ground in semi-evergreen forest on Phnom Chan Mountain, Cardamom Mountains, Sre Ambel District, Koh Kong Province, Cambodia (11.44° N, 103.79° E), 100–200 m elevation. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: FMNH 259191, adult female, collected on 25 August 2000 by BLS and S. Platt. 
CommentDiagnosis. Cryptelytrops cardamomensis sp. nov. is distinguished from C. venustus, C. honsonensis and C. kanburiensis, by the absence of purple-red marking (banding on the body and blotches on the head). It is distin- guished from all other Asian pitviper species which have the typical "green pitviper" colouration (uniform green dorsal colour and a lateral stripe present on the first few dorsal scale rows in one or both sexes), except other spe- cies of Cryptelytrops (including C. albolabris, C. insularis and C. septentrionalis), by the presence of a fused first supralabial and nasal scale. It can be distinguished from C. albolabris, C. insularis and C. septentrionalis primarily by the relatively larger size of the eye (most obvious in adults), the relatively wider supraoculars, and the shape of the head. The latter is more elongate–oval in C. albolabris, C. insularis and C. septentrionalis, but widens quite abruptly behind the eyes in C. cardamomensis, C. macrops s.s. and C. rubeus sp. nov. (described below) to give a characteristically triangular shaped head. Cryptelytrops cardamomensis can be distinguished from both C. macrops s.s. and C. rubeus using a combination of the following characters (for further details see Table 2). In males, C. car- damomensis tends to have more scales between the rear edges of the supraoculars (BTWSUPOC2), a relatively larger eye (DEYE), and a more prominent postocular white stripe (SCROC) than either C. macrops s.s, or C. rubeus. Furthermore, compared to C. macrops s.s, the scale reduction from 19 to 17 scale rows around the body (VS19TO17) tends to occur further away from the head, it tends to have fewer (larger) scales bordering the suprala- bial scales (BORSUPOC), and less keeled temporal scales (KTEMP). Compared to C. rubeus, the scale reduction from 19 to 17 scale rows around the body tends to involve higher (i.e., more dorsal) scale rows (DV19TO17); it tends to have more keeled body scales at mid-body (BSCK), and more scales between the last supralabial and the chin shields (VENTEDGE). In females, the lateral white stripe is much more prominent (STRIPE), always involv- ing the first two dorsal scale rows. Furthermore, it tends to cover a larger proportion of the first scale row (SCR1) than in females of C. macrops s.s. A small scale is present between the nasal scale and the scale bordering the ante- rior edge of the pit (NASPIT), whereas this is infrequently present in C. macrops s.s. and never present in C. rubeus. Crytpelytrops cardamomensis tends to have more (smaller) scales bordering the supralabial scales (BOR- SUPOC) than C. rubeus, but fewer (larger) than in C. macrops s.s. The scale reduction from 19 to 17 scale rows around the body (DV19TO17) tends to involve lower scale rows in C. cardamomensis and the fusion between the first labial and nasal scale tends to be more complete (LABNAS) and involve partial sutures on both sides of the nostril (compare Figs. 3, 5 and 7), than in either C. macrops s.s, or C. rubeus. Furthermore, compared to C. macrops s.s, , the scale reduction from 19 to 17 scale rows around the body (VS19TO17) tends to occur further away from the head, it tends to have more scales between the rear edges of the supraoculars (BTWSUPOC2), a higher number of sublabial scales (SUBLAB), and a relatively smaller eye (DEYE). Compared to C. rubeus, it has more keeled body scales at mid-body (BSCK), the scale reduction from 12 to 10 scale rows around the tail (SC12O10) also tends to occur further away from the vent, and there are a larger number of ventral scales in C. car- damomensis females than in C. rubeus females [from MALHOTRA et al. 2011]. 
EtymologyThe name refers to the mountain range wherein the type locality of this species occurs. 
References
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, Andreas 2012. Aktuelles zur Taxonomie und Systematik asiatischer Grubenottern. Terraria-Elaphe 2012 (1): 52-61
  • MALHOTRA, ANITA; ROGER S. THORPE, MRINALINI & BRYAN L. STUART 2011. Two new species of pitviper of the genus Cryptelytrops Cope 1860 (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from Southeast Asia. Zootaxa 2757: 1–23 - get paper here
  • Mrinalini, Roger S. Thorpe, Simon Creer, Delphine Lallias, Louise Dawnay, Bryan L. Stuart, Anita Malhotra 2015. Convergence of multiple markers and analysis methods defines the genetic distinctiveness of cryptic pitvipers Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution<br />92: 266–279; doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.06.001 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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