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Trimeresurus flavomaculatus (GRAY, 1842)

IUCN Red List - Trimeresurus flavomaculatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesPhilippine pitviper 
SynonymMegaera flavomaculatus GRAY 1842: 49
Magaera ornata GRAY 1842
Magaera variegata GRAY 1842
Parias flavomaculatus— GRAY 1849
Parias ornatus GRAY 1849
Parias variegatus GRAY 1849
Trimeresurus flavomaculatus — GÜNTHER 1879
Trimeresurus schadenbergi FISCHER 1885: 116
Lachesis flavomaculatus BOULENGER 1896
Trimeresurus halieus GRIFFIN 1910
Trimeresurus flavomaculatus halieus — LEVITON 1961
Trimeresurus flavomaculatus flavomaculatus — LEVITON 1961
Trimeresurus flavomaculatus flavomaculatus — WELCH 1994: 115
Trimeresurus flavomaculatus halieus — WELCH 1994: 115
Trimeresurus flavomaculatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 332
Parias flavomaculatus flavomaculatus — MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004
Trimeresurus (Parias) flavomaculatus — DAVID et al. 2011
Parias flavomaculatus — GAULKE 2011: 336
Parias flavomaculatus — GAULKE 2013
Parias flavomaculatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 537
Trimeresurus cf. flavomaculatus — SANGUILA et al. 2016 
DistributionPhilippines (Camiguin, Jolo, Luzon, Mindanao, Polillo, Bataan)

flavomaculatus: Bohol, Camiguin, Catanduanes, Dinigat, Jolo, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Panay.

halieus: Polillo; Type locality: Polillo, Philippines.

Type locality: Philippines; restricted to Luzon by LEVITON (1964). Restriction is invalid according to DAVID & INEICH (1999). Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionovoviviparous 
TypesHolotype: Bureau of Science Collection, No. 748 (lost during World War II)
Holotype: CAS 62576 [halieus] 
CommentVenomous!

Subspecies: T. (Parias) flavomaculatus mcgregori (TAYLOR 1919) has been elevated to full species status. T. schultzei previously has been considered as a subspecies of T. flavomaculatus. The subspecies halieus is not recognized by GUMPRECHT et al. 2004.

Type species: Megaera flavomaculatus is the type species of the genus Parias GRAY 1849.

Diet: frogs, lizards, rodents, possibly fish 
References
  • Brown; Rafe; Cameron Siler, Carl Oliveros, Luke Welton, Ashley Rock, John Swab, Merlijn Van Weerd, Jonah van Beijnen, Dominic Rodriguez, Edmund Jose, Arvin Diesmos 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mou ntain Range. ZooKeys 266 (2013) Special Issue: 1-120<br />doi: 10.3897/zookeys.266.3982 - get paper here
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • David,P. & Ineich,I. 1999. Les serpents venimeux du monde: systématique et répartition. Dumerilia 3: 3-499
  • DEVAN-SONG, Anne and Rafe M. BROWN 2012. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VI: The Herpetofauna of the Subic Bay Area. Asian Herpetological Research 3 (1): 1–20 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1885. Ichthyologische und herpetologische Bemerkungen. V. Herpetologische Bemerkungen. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 2: 82-121 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1885. Ichthyologische und herpetologische Bemerkungen. Teil IV: Über eine Kollektion von Amphibien und Reptilien von Mindanao. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 2: 80-81 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, M. 2001. Die Herpetofauna von Sibaliw (Panay), einem der letzten Tieflandregenwaldgebiete der West-Visayas, Philippinen. Teil II: Schlangen. Herpetofauna 23 (131): 23-34 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, M. 2006. Trimeresurus flavomaculatus. Reptilia (GB) (47): 43-46 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, M. 2006. Trimeresurus flavomaculatus (GRAY 1842) - Philippinen-Bambusotter. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (57): 51-54 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, M. 2011. The herpetofauna of Panay Island, Philippines. Edition Chimaira, 390 pp.
  • Gaulke, M. 2013. Abenteuerurlaub auf den Philippinen. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (100): 114-125 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, M. & A. D. Demegillo 2008. Der Mabitang (Varanus mabitang), ein Früchte fressender Großwaran von den Philippinen. Reptilia (Münster) 13 (71): 67-74 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1842. Synopsis of the species of Rattle snakes, or Family of Crotalidae. Zoological Miscellany 2: 47- 51. - get paper here
  • Griffin, L.E. 1910. A list of snakes from the island of Polillo, P. I.,, with descriptions of a new genus ands two new species. Philippine Journal of Science 5 (4): 211-217 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A. 2002. Die Bambusottern der Gattung Trimeresurus Lacépède Teil V: Die philippinischen Bambusottern des Trimeresurus flavomaculatus-Komplexes II. Die Batanes-Bambusotter Trimeresurus mcgregori TAYLOR 1919. Sauria 24 (3): 31-44 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Gumprecht,A. 2001. Die Bambusottern der Gattung Trimeresurus Lacépède Teil V: Die philippinischen Bambusottern I: Die Philippinen- oder Gelbflecken-Bambusotter Trimeresurus flavomaculatus (GRAY 1842). Sauria 23 (3): 3-14 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht,A. 2001. Die Bambusottern der Gattung Trimeresurus Lacépède Teil IV: Checkliste der Trimeresurus-Arten Thailands. Sauria 23 (2): 25-32 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1879. List of mammals, reptiles, and batrachians sent by Mr. Everett from the Philippine Islands. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1879: 74-79 - get paper here
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407
  • Klemmer,K. 1963. Liste der rezenten Giftschlangen. Elapidae, Hydropheidae [sic], Viperidae und Crotalidae. In: Die Giftschlangen der Erde. Behringwerk-Mitteilungen, spec. Suppl., Marburg.
  • Klusmeyer, B. & Fausten, B. 1994. Haltung und NAchzucht der Bambusotter Trimeresurus flavomaculatus halieus. Salamandra 30 (3): 174-184
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Leviton,A.E. 1964. Contributions to a review of Philippine snakes. V. The snakes of the genus Trimeresurus. Philippine J. Sci. 93: 251-276 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, Anita & Thorpe, Roger S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83 –100 [erratum p. 680] - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • MCLEOD, David S.; Cameron D. SILER, Arvin C. DIESMOS, Mae L. DIESMOS, Vhon S. GARCIA, Angela O. ARKONCEO, Kelvin L. BALAQUIT, Charlene C. UY, Mariden M. VILLASERAN, Earle C. YARRA, Rafe M. BROWN 2011. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, V: The Herpetofauna of Angat Dam Watershed, Bulacan Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. Asian Herpetological Research 2 (4): 177–198 - get paper here
  • Sanguila MB, Cobb KA, Siler CD, Diesmos AC, Alcala AC, Brown RM 2016. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: the herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent islands. ZooKeys 624: 1–132, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.624.9814
  • Schatti, B. & Guillod, M. 1990. Bemerkungen zur Rassengliederung bei der Philippinischen Bambusotter, Trimeresurus flavomaculatus (GRAY 1842). Herpetofauna 12 (66): 32-34 - get paper here
  • Siler, C.D.; L.J. Welton; J.M. Siler; J. Brown; A. Bucol; A.C. Diesmos; R. Brown. 2011. Amphibians and Reptiles, Luzon Island, Aurora Province and Aurora Memorial National Park, Northern Philippines: New island distribution records. Check List 7 (2):182-195 - get paper here
  • Sweeney, Roger 1994. McGregor's pit viper, Trimeresurus flavomaculatus mcgregori. Herptile: Journal of the International Herpetological Society 19 (2): 86-88
  • Sy, Emerson Y. and Ronny Boos. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Trimeresurus flavomaculatus (Philippine pitviper). Herpetological Review 46 (2): 222
  • Taylor, E.H. 1919. New or rare Philippine reptiles. Philippine Journal of Science 14: 105-125
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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