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Trimeresurus gumprechti DAVID, VOGEL, PAUWELS & VIDAL, 2002

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesGumprecht’s green pitviper 
SynonymTrimeresurus gumprechti DAVID, VOGEL, PAUWELS & VIDAL 2002
Trimeresurus gumprechti — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Viridovipera gumprechti — MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004
Viridovipera gumprechti — DAWSON et al. 2008
Trimeresurus (Viridovipera) gumprechti — DAVID et al. 2011
Viridovipera gumprechti — WALLACH et al. 2014: 790
Viridovipera gumprechti — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 288 
DistributionNE Thailand (Loei, Phitsanulok, Phetchabun and Chaiyaphum), Laos, Vietnam, China (Yunnan), Myanmar

Type locality: Phu Luang Wildlife Research Station, about 15 km northwest of the City of Phu Luang and 45 km southwest of the City of Loei, Loei Province, Thailand. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: MNHN 1999.9072 
CommentVenomous! This species is related to T. stejnegeri, with which it was formerly confused. The new species is large (to 130 cm). It may also occur in northwestern Laos.

Diagnosis.–A species of the genus Trimeresurus, characterized by (1) hemipenes short and strongly spinose; (2) overall bright green coloration in males, deep or dark green in females; (3) interstitial skin black; (4) large size, with a total length greater than 1200 mm in females; (5) conspicuous bicolored postocular stripe in males, thin and white below, wide and bright red above, reversed from the scheme of the ventrolateral stripe (only thin and white in females); (6) vivid, wide bicolored ventrolateral stripe, bright or deep red below/white above in males, extending along the lower part of the first third of the tail, white or blue but well defined in females; (7) eyes deep red in males, yellow in females; (8) tail mostly rusty or reddish-brown (see below); (9) tail long in males, with a ratio TaL/TL ranging from 0.160.21, rather short in females, 0.14-0.16; (10) VEN: 162-168; SC: 51-71; (11) first supralabial distinct from nasal; (12) 21 dorsal scale rows at midbody, moderately keeled; (13) snout covered with rather enlarged juxtaposed scales; (14) internasals either in contact or separated by only 1 scale; (15) supraoculars narrower than internasals, separated by 10-12 smooth cephalic scales. T. gumprechti differs from all other green pitvipers by the combination of the following characters: (1) short, spinose hemipenis, (2) first supralabials separated from the nasal, (3) the very conspicuous (at least in life) reversed bicolored postocular stripe, white below and wide, bright or deep red above, always present in males (postocular streak only white in females), (4) the ventrolateral stripe, bright red below and white above in males, running under the first third of the tail, white in females, (5) eyes deep red in males, (6) black interstitial skin, (7) upper snout scales enlarged, (8) internasal scales often in contact or separated by at most one scale and (9) greatest part of upper surface of the tail rusty red. These characters and the comparisons with other species are detailed below in the Discussion. 
References
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • David, P., G. Vogel, O.S.G. Pauwels & N. Vidal 2002. Description of a new species of the genus Trimeresurus from Thailand, related to Trimeresurus stejnegeri Schmidt, 1925 (Serpentes, Crotalidae). Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University, 2 (1): 5-19 - get paper here
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • Dawson, Karen; Anita Malhotra, Roger S. Thorpe, Peng Guo, Mrinalini and Thomas Ziegler 2008. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals a new member of the Asian pitviper genus Viridovipera (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49: 356-361 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407
  • Guo, Peng; Qin Liu, Guanghui Zhong, Fei Zhu, Fang Yan, Ting Tang, Rong Xiao, Min Fang, Ping Wang and Xin Fu 2015. Cryptic diversity of green pitvipers in Yunnan, South-west China (Squamata, Viperidae) Amphibia-Reptilia 36 (3): 265 - 276 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, Anita & Thorpe, Roger S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83 –100 [erratum p. 680] - get paper here
  • Preißler, D. 2004. Alles über Schlangen. Draco 5 (17): 4-21 - get paper here
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Thompson, C. & Thompson, T. 2008. First contact in the Greater Mekong - new species discoveries. WWF, 40 pp. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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