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Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (GRAY, 1832)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Shore Pit Viper, Mangrove Viper
G: Mangrovenotter 
SynonymTrigonocephalus purpureo-maculatus GRAY in GRAY & HARDWICKE 1832: pl 81
Trimesurus purpureus GRAY 1842
Trimesurus purpureus — GRAY 1849
Trimeresurus puniceus (nec Cophias punicea BOIE 1827) — CANTOR 1847
Trimeresurus porphyraceus BLYTH 1861
Trimeresurus porphyraceus — THEOBALD 1868
Trimeresurus porphyraceus —STOLICZKA 1870
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus — BOULENGER 1890
Lachesis purpureomaculatus — BOULENGER 1896
Lachesis purpureomaculatus — WALL 1908: 784
Lachesis purpureomaculatus — DE ROOIJ 1917: 284
Trimeresurus acutimentalis WERNER 1927: 257
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus purpureomaculatus — SMITH 1943: 520
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus purpureomaculatus — WELCH 1994: 117
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 410
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus — COX et al. 1998: 23
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 342
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus — MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004
Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) purpureomaculatus — DAVID et al. 2011
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 742
Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 285 
DistributionBangladesh, Burma, S Thailand,
W Malaysia, Indonesia (Sumatra)

David & Vogel (1996):
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus purpureomaculatus: Indonesia (Sumatra); Malaysia (Malaya); Myanmar; Singapore; Thailand.

Type locality: “Singapura” Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.19.54 
CommentVenomous!

Subspecies: Trimeresurus andersonii has been treated previously as a subspecies of Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus. See comment on T. andersonii.

Distribution: Has been reported from the Nicobar and Andaman Islands although no voucher specimen seem to exist according to DAS 1999. Not in (continental) India fide I. Das (pers. comm., 22 Dec 2011).

Type species: Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus is the type species of the genus Cryptelytrops COPE 1860.

DIAGNOSIS (DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS).— Scales in 25–27 longitudinal rows at midbody; 11–13 upper labials, the first partially or completely united with the nasal; supraocular very narrow, sometimes broken into small scales, 12–15 scales between them; head scales small, subequal, tuberculate or granular; temporal scales keeled; body color highly variable, above olive, grayish, to dark purplish brown, below whitish, greenish or brown, uniform or spotted with brown; a light line on scale row one bordering ventrals present or absent; head olive, heavily suffused with brown; ventrals: males 160–179, females 168–183; subcaudals: males 74–76, females 56–63, paired; hemipenes without spines. Total length males 665 mm, females 900; tail length males 125 mm, females 140 mm. [after LEVITON 2003] 
References
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Das, I. 1999. Biogeography of the amphibians and reptiles of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. In: Ota,H. (ed) Tropical Island herpetofauna..., Elsevier, pp. 43-77 - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • David,P. & Vogel,G. 1996. The snakes of Sumatra. An annotated checklist and key with natural history notes. Bücher Kreth, Frankfurt/M.
  • de Rooij, N. DE 1917. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Il. Ophidia. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 334 S.
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1831. Illustrations of Indian Zoology: chiefly selected from the collection of Major General Hardwicke. Vol. 1, London (1830-1835) - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Tri, Ngo Van; Grismer, Jesse L. 2008. A new species of insular pitviper of the genus Cryptelytrops (Squamata: Viperidae) from southern Vietnam. Zootaxa 1715: 57-68 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Gumprecht,A. 2001. Die Bambusottern der Gattung Trimeresurus Lacépède Teil IV: Checkliste der Trimeresurus-Arten Thailands. Sauria 23 (2): 25-32 - get paper here
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407
  • Hartmann, P., Jr. & B. Steiner 1985. Breeding results: Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus. Litteratura Serpentium 5 (5): 205-206 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Guinevere O.U. Wogan; Michelle S. Koo; George R. Zug; Rhonda S. Lucas and Jens V. Vindum 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407–462
  • Malhotra, Anita & Thorpe, Roger S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83 –100 [erratum p. 680] - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Nabhitabhata, J., T. Chan-ard and Y. Chuaynkern 2000. Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand. Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Bankok. 152pp.
  • Pauwels,O.S.G. et al. 2000. Herpetological investigations in Phang-Nga Province, southern Peninsular Thailand, with a list of reptile species and notes on their biology. Dumerilia 4 (2): 123-154 - get paper here
  • Pope,C.H. & Pope, S.H. 1933. A study of the green pit-vipers of southeastern Asia and Malaysia, commonly identified as Trimeresurus gramineus (SHAW), with description of a new species from Peninsular India. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 620: 1-12
  • QUAH, EVAN S.H.; SHAHRULANUAR, M.S., GRISMER, L.L., MOHD ABDUL MUIN, M.A.; CHAN, K.O. and GRISMER, J.L. 2011. Preliminary Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Jerejak Island, Penang, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 63 (3): 595-600
  • Sclater,W.L. 1891. Notes on a collection of snakes in the Indian Museum, with descriptions of several new species. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal LX: 230-250 - get paper here
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Stoliczka, F. 1870. Observations of some Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia (abstract). Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 6: 105-109 - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • Wall, F. 1906. The poisonous snakes of India and how to recognize them, Part II. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 299-334 - get paper here
  • Wall,F. 1908. Remarks on some recently acquired snakes. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 18: 778-784 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1927. Neue oder wenig bekannte Schlangen aus dem Wiener naturhistorischen Staatsmuseum (III. Teil). Sitzungsb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl. 143 [135?]: 243-257 [1926] - get paper here
  • Whitaker, R. 1978. 19. Birth Record of the Andaman Pit Viper (Trimeresurus Purpureomaculatus ). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 75 (1): 233 - get paper here
 
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