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Trimeresurus septentrionalis KRAMER, 1977

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Nepal pitviper
G: Nepal-Bambusotter 
SynonymTrimeresurus albolabris septentrionalis KRAMER 1977
Trimeresurus septentrionalis — GIANNASI et al. 2001
Trimeresurus albolabris septentrionalis — LEVITON et al. 2003
Cryptelytrops septentrionalis — MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004
Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) septentrionalis — DAVID et al. 2011
Trimeresurus septentrionalis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 743 
DistributionBangladesh; India; Nepal

Type locality: Napal, 83° 55’, 28° 15’, 1500 m elevation (near Pokhara) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: MHNG 1404.31 
CommentT. septentrionalis has been raised to full species status by GIANNASI et al. (2001) based on RFLPs. I [P.U.] don’t believe that sequence polymorphisms are reliable markers for species boundaries as they are only a very indirect measure of reproductive isolation.

DIAGNOSIS.- Scales in 21 longitudinal rows at midbody; 10-11(12) upper labials, the first fused to the nasal; head scales small, subequal, feebly imbricate, smooth or weakly keeled; supraoculars narrow, undivided, 9-11 interocular scales between them; temporal scales smooth; green above, below, green, yellowish or white below, a faint ventrolateral stripe present in all males, absent in females; end of tail not mottled brown; ventrals: males 162-172, females 160-181; subcaudals: males 68-83, females 55-71, paired; hemipenes without spines. Total length males 610 mm, females 730 [partly based on G. Vogel, pers. comm.]. 
References
  • Bhattarai, Santosh; Chiranjibi P. Pokheral, Baburam Lamichhane,, and Naresh Subedi 2017. Herpetofauna of a Ramsar Site: Beeshazar and Associated Lakes, Chitwan National Park, Nepal. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 24 (1): 17-29 - get paper here
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • Giannasi NICHOLAS, THORPE ROGER S. and MALHOTRA ANITA 2001. The use of amplified fragment length polymorphism in determining species trees at fine taxonomic levels: analysis of a medically important snake, Trimeresurus albolabris. Molecular Ecology 10: 419-426
  • Gray, J. E. 1842. Synopsis of the species of Rattle snakes, or Family of Crotalidae. Zoological Miscellany 2: 47- 51. - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Tri, Ngo Van; Grismer, Jesse L. 2008. A new species of insular pitviper of the genus Cryptelytrops (Squamata: Viperidae) from southern Vietnam. Zootaxa 1715: 57-68 - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Kramer, E. 1977. Zur Schlangenfauna Nepals. Rev. suisse Zool., 84 (3): 721-761. - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Guinevere O.U. Wogan; Michelle S. Koo; George R. Zug; Rhonda S. Lucas and Jens V. Vindum 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407–462
  • Malhotra, Anita & Thorpe, Roger S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83 –100 [erratum p. 680] - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
 
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