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Trimeresurus trigonocephalus (LATREILLE, 1801)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Ceylon Pit Viper, Sri Lankan Green pitviper
G: Ceylon-Lanzenotter 
SynonymVipera trigonocephala LATREILLE in SONNINI & LATREILLE 1801: 332
Trigonocephalus nigromarginatus KUHL 1820 (fide SMITH 1943)
Megaera olivacea GRAY 1842 (fide SMITH 1943)
? Bothrops nigro-marginatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1515
Megaera trigonocephala — GÜNTHER 1859: 231
Trimeresurus capitetriangulatus
Lachesis trigonocephalus — BOULENGER 1896
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus — GÜNTHER 1864
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus — SMITH 1943: 506
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus — WELCH 1994: 117
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 347
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus— TU et al. 2000
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus — MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004
Trimeresurus (Craspedocephalus) trigonocephalus — DAVID et al. 2011
Craspedocephalus trigonocephalus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 188 
DistributionSri Lanka (elevation below 1000 m)

Type locality: originally given as “Habitat in Africae regno Whida”, in error. Given as Ile S. Eustache” by SONNINI & LATREILLE (1801: 332), according to DAVID & INEICH 1999: 292. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesTypes: BMNH 1946.1.17.62-63 (and possibly additional specimens). 
CommentVenomous! 
References
  • Botejue, W. Madhava S.; Jayantha Wattavidanage 2012. Herpetofaunal diversity and distribution in Kalugala proposed forest reserve, Western province of Sri Lanka. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 5 (2): 65-80(e38). - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Das, I. & De Silva, A. 2005. Photographic guide to snakes and other reptiles of Sri Lanka. New Holland Publishers, 144 pp.
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • David,P. & Ineich,I. 1999. Les serpents venimeux du monde: systématique et répartition. Dumerilia 3: 3-499
  • de Silva, A. 1998. Snakes of Sri Lanka: a checklist and an annotated bibliography. Dept. Wildlife Conservation/GEF/UNDP/FAO, Colombo.
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Gumprecht,A. 1999. Trimeresurus trigonocephalus (LATREILLE). Sauria (Suppl.) 21 (3): 461-466 - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1859. On the geographical distribution of reptiles. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 3: 221-237 - get paper here
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407
  • Hoer, K. 2013. 27 Jahre Terrarianer – eine Zeitreise. Ophidia 7 (1): 25-33 - get paper here
  • Hoer, Karsten 2014. Haltung und Zucht der Ceylon-Lanzenotter, Trimeresurus trigonocephalus. Terraria Elaphe 2014 (1): 58-62 (2013) - get paper here
  • Janzen, P. 2003. Sinharaja - Der Regenwald des Löwenkönigs. Draco 4 (15): 26-33 - get paper here
  • Janzen, P.; Klaas, P. & Ziesmann, S. 2007. Sri Lankas Schlangenfauna. Draco 7 (30): 56-64 - get paper here
  • Janzen, Peter and Malaka Bopage 2011. The herpetofauna of a small and unprotected patch of tropical rainforest in Morningside, Sri Lanka. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 5 (2): 1-13 - get paper here
  • Karunarathna, Suranjan; D. M. S. and A. A. Thasun Amarasinghe 2011. A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF THE REPTILE FAUNA IN NILGALA FOREST AND ITS VICINITY, MONARAGALA DISTRICT, SRI LANKA. Taprobanica 3 (02): 69-76
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Malhotra, Anita & Thorpe, Roger S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83 –100 [erratum p. 680] - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Nanayakkara, G. L. A. 1994. The form and function of the procryptic adaptations of the green pit-viper (Trimeresurus trigonocephalus) in Sri Lanka. The Snake 26 (1): 75-78
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, N.; Barabanov, A.; Ryabov, S. & Khalikov, R. 2002. Diversity of vipers (Azemiopinae, Crotalinae) in East, Southeast, and South Asia: annotated checklist and natural history data (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 23: 177-218
  • Pachmann,A. 2008. In 2 Jahren um die Welt - Jetzt gehts richtig los. Reptilia (Münster) 13 (71): 12-13 - get paper here
  • Preißler, D. 2004. Alles über Schlangen. Draco 5 (17): 4-21 - get paper here
  • Pyron, R. Alexander; H.K. Dushantha Kandambi, Catriona R. Hendry, Vishan Pushpamal, Frank T. Burbrink, Ruchira Somaweera 2013. Genus-level phylogeny of snakes reveals the origins of species richness in Sri Lanka. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (3): 969-978 - get paper here
  • Silva, Anslem de 2013. Die Ceylon-Lanzenotter, Trimeresurus trigonocephalus (Donndorff, 1798), in Sri Lanka. Ophidia 7 (2): 22-26 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Sonnini de Manoncourt, C.S. and Latreille, P.A. 1801. Histoire Naturelle des Reptiles, avec Figures Dessinees d'Apres Nature. 3. Paris, Librairie encyclopédique de Roret, 332 pp. - get paper here
  • Tu, M.-C. et al. 2000. Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Biogeography of the Oriental Pitvipers of the Genus Trimeresurus (Reptilia: Viperidae: Crotalinae): A Molecular Perspective. Zoological Science 17: 1147–1157 - get paper here
  • Wall, F. 1906. The poisonous snakes of India and how to recognize them, Part II. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 299-334 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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