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Trimeresurus yunnanensis SCHMIDT, 1925

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Yunnan Bamboo pitviper
Chinese: 云南竹叶青蛇 
SynonymTrimeresurus yunnanensis SCHMIDT 1925
Trimeresurus stejnegeri yunnanensis POPE 1935
Trimeresurus stejnegeri yunnanensis — ZHAO & ADLER 1993
Trimeresurus stejnegeri yunnanensis — WELCH 1994: 117
Trimeresurus yunnanensis — ZHAO 1995
Trimeresurus yunnanensis — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Viridovipera yunnanensis — MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004
Viridovipera yunnanensis — GUO et al. 2006
Viridovipera yunnanensis — DAWSON et al. 2008
Trimeresurus (Viridovipera) yunnanensis — DAVID et al. 2011
Viridovipera yunnanensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 791
Viridovipera yunnanensis — GUO et al. 2018 
DistributionS China (Yunnan and southwestern Sichuan), Nepal, elevations up to 2845 m

Type locality: Tengyueh [=Tengchiong Co.], Yunnan, China.  
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: AMNH 21058 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS (DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS).— Scales in 19 (rarely 21) longitudinal rows at midbody and 19(–21) on neck; 9–10 (rarely 11) upper labials, first upper labials separated from nasals by a distinct suture; a single narrow supraocular, sometimes divided by transverse suture; 11–16 scales in a line between supraoculars; above bright to dark green, below pale green to whitish, the two separated by a bicolored orange or brown (below) and white (above) (males) or white only or absent (females) ventrolateral stripe, which occupies the whole of the outermost scale row and a portion of the second row; ventrals 155–165 (–170); subcaudals (58–) 61–68, all paired; hemipenes short, spinose beyond bifurcation. Total length 750 mm, tail length 145 mm. [after LEVITON 2003] 
CommentVenomous!

Habitat: not arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
Etymology 
References
  • David, P., G. Vogel, O.S.G. Pauwels & N. Vidal 2002. Description of a new species of the genus Trimeresurus from Thailand, related to Trimeresurus stejnegeri Schmidt, 1925 (Serpentes, Crotalidae). Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University, 2 (1): 5-19 - get paper here
  • DAVID, P., N. VIDAL & S. G. PAUWELS 2001. A morphological study of Stejneger's pitviper Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae), with the description of a new species from Thailand. Russ. J. Herpetol. 8 (3): 205-222 - get paper here
  • David, Patrick, Ashok Captain and Bharat B. Bhatt 2002. On the occurrence of Trimeresurus medoensis Djao in: Djao & Jaing, 1977 (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae) in India, with a redescription of the species and notes on its biology. Hamadryad 26(2):210-226 [2001]
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • Dawson, Karen; Anita Malhotra, Roger S. Thorpe, Peng Guo, Mrinalini and Thomas Ziegler 2008. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals a new member of the Asian pitviper genus Viridovipera (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49: 356-361 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407
  • Guo, Peng; Lu, Shunqing; Huang, Song; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Ermi 2006. Hemipenial morphology of five Asian pitvipers, with a discussion on their taxonomy. Amphibia-Reptilia 27 (1): 19-23 - get paper here
  • Guo, Peng; Malhotra, Anita; Thorpe, Roger S.; Creer, Simon; Pook, Catharine E. 2009. Comments on the systematic status of specimens belonging to the genus Viridovipera (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of southwestern China, with a redescription of V. yunnanensis. The Herpetological Journal 19: 151-162 - get paper here
  • Guo, Peng; Qin Liu, Guanghui Zhong, Fei Zhu, Fang Yan, Ting Tang, Rong Xiao, Min Fang, Ping Wang and Xin Fu 2015. Cryptic diversity of green pitvipers in Yunnan, South-west China (Squamata, Viperidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 36 (3): 265 - 276 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Kramer, E. 1977. Zur Schlangenfauna Nepals. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 84 (3): 721-761. - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Guinevere O.U. Wogan; Michelle S. Koo; George R. Zug; Rhonda S. Lucas and Jens V. Vindum 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407–462 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, Anita & Thorpe, Roger S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83 –100 [erratum p. 680] - get paper here
  • Schmidt, KARL P. 1925. New reptiles and a new salamander from China. American Museum Novitates (157): 1-5. - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Yang, J.-H., X.-Y. Huang, J.-F. Ye, S.-P. Yang, X.-.C. Zhang & B.P.-L. Chan 2019. A report on the herpetofauna of Tengchong Section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, China. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(11): 14434–14451 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 1995. Infraspecific classification of some Chinese snakes. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 14 (3): 107-112. - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
 
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