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Tropidurus lagunablanca CARVALHO, 2016

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Higher TaxaTropiduridae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymTropidurus lagunablanca CARVALHO 2016
Tropidurus tarara CARVALHO 2016
Tropidurus teyumirim CARVALHO 2016
Tropidurus spinulosus — PERACCA 1895
Tropidurus spinulosus — SCHENKEL 1901
Tropidurus spinulosus — BERTONI 1939
Tropidurus spinulosus — HELLMICH 1960
Tropidurus spinulosus — ELTER 1981
Tropidurus sp. — AQUINO et al. 1996 [part.]
Tropidurus spinulosus guarani — ALVAREZ et al. 1994: 164
Tropidurus guarani — FROST et al. 1998: 839 [part.]
Tropidurus guarani — FROST et al. 2001: 361
Tropidurus guarani — CARVALHO 2013 [part.]
Tropidurus guarani — CACCIALI et al. 2016 [part.]
Tropidurus cf xanthochilus — SMITH et al. 2016
Tropidurus tarara — CARVALHO 2016
Tropidurus sp. 1 — CACCIALI et al. 2016
Tropidurus lagunablanca — CACCIALI & KÖHLER 2018 
DistributionCE Paraguay

Type locality: Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Santa Rosa del Aguaray, San Pedro, Paraguay, 23° 48′ 43.20′′ S 56° 17′ 40.92′′ W, WGS 84 system; ~207 m elevation.

tarara: N Paraguay (east of the Paraguay River); Type locality: Reserva Natural Cerrados del Tagatiya, Concepción, Paraguay, 22° 41’ 32.611’’ S, 57° 22’ 9.574’’ W, WGS84 system; ~166 m elevation.

teyumirim: Paraguay; Type locality: Parque Nacional Ybycui, Paraguarí, Paraguay, 26° 2’ 59.715’’ S, 56° 52’ 12.809′′ W, WGS84 system; ~229 m elevation.  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: CZPLT-H 402 (adult male; geographic coordinates not specified in the CZPLT catalog, estimated based on field observations of the restricted local distribution of the species in the type locality in September 2013). Paratypes: AMNH-R 176291 (juvenile male), AMNH-R 176292 (adult female), collected at Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Santa Rosa del Aguaray, San Pedro, Paraguay (23° 48′ 43.20′′ S 56° 17′ 40.92′′ W, WGS84 system; ~207 m above sea level) by André L. Gomes de Carvalho, Frederick Bauer, Nicolás Martínez, Viviana Espínola, and Marcelo Dujak in 7 September 2013. AMNH-R 176293 (adult female), collected at Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Santa Rosa del Aguaray, San Pedro, Paraguay (23° 48′ 43.20′′ S 56° 17′ 40.92′′ W, WGS84 system; ~207 m above sea level) by André L. Gomes de Carvalho, Rodrigo Ayala, and Johanna López in 29 September 2013. CZPLT-H 157, CZPLT-H 406, CZPLT-H 409, CZPLT-H 461 (adult males), CZPLT-H 405 (juvenile male), collected at Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Santa Rosa del Aguaray, San Pedro, Paraguay. MNHNP 11463 (adult male), collected at Laguna Blanca, San Pedro, Paraguay, by Norman J. Scott in 18 February 2010. MNHNP 11755 (juvenile male), MNHNP 11756 (subadult male), collected at Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Santa Rosa del Aguaray, San Pedro, Paraguay (23° 48′ 43.20′′ S 56° 17′ 40.92′′ W, WGS84 system; ~207 m above sea level), by André L. Gomes de Carvalho, Rodrigo Ayala, and Johanna López in 29 September 2013.
Holotype: MNHNP 12044, adult male (Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay, San Lorenzo), collected by André L. G. de Carvalho, Pastor Enmanuel Perez-Estigarribia, Rodrigo Ayala, Johanna López, and Nestor Romero in 20 September 2013. Paratypes: AMNH-R 176304 (adult male), AMNH-R 176305 (adult female), MNHNP 11771 (subadult male), collected with the holotype. AMNH-R 176307 (adult male), AMNH-R 176308 (juvenile of undetermined sex), AMNH-R 176309 (adult female), MNHNP 11772 (adult male), MNHNP 11773 (subadult male), MNHNP 11774 (adult male), MNHNP 11775 (adult male), MNHNP 11776 (adult male), collected at Loma farm corral, Reserva Natural Cerrados del Tagatiya, Concepción, Paraguay (22° 31’ 5.495’’ S 57° 22’ 21.219’’ W, WGS84 system; ~377 m above sea level), by André L. G. de Carvalho, Pastor Enmanuel Perez-Estigarribia, Rodrigo Ayala, Johanna López, and Nestor Romero in 20 September 2013. AMNH-R 176310 (juvenile of undetermined sex), AMNH-R 176311 (adult male), MNHNP 11767 (subadult male), collected at Estancia Bello Horizonte pathway, Ñu Porã, Reserva Natural Cerrados del Tagatiya, Concepción, Paraguay (22° 45’ 5.350’’ S 57° 22’ 17.198’’ W, WGS84 system; 200 m above sea level), by André L. G. de Carvalho, Pastor Enmanuel Perez-Estigarribia, Rodrigo Ayala, Johanna López, and Nestor Romero in 21 September 2013. MNHNP 11766 (juvenile female), collected at Estancia Bello Horizonte pathway, Ñu Porã, Reserva Natural Cerrados del Tagatiya, Concepción, Paraguay (22° 47’ 26.34’’ S 57° 24’ 13.28’’ W, WGS84 system; 200 m above sea level), by André L. G. de Carvalho, Pastor Enmanuel Perez-Estigarribia, Rodrigo Ayala, Johanna López, and Nestor Romero in 21 September 2013. AMNH-R 176312 (adult male), AMNH-R 176313 (adult male), MNHNP 11768 (juvenile female), collected at the Parque Nacional Serranía San Luís (22° 38′ 54.056′′ S 57° 27′ 11.602′′ W, WGS84 system; 285 m above sea level), by André L. G. de Carvalho, Pastor Enmanuel Perez-Estigarribia, Rodrigo Ayala, Johanna López, and Nestor Romero in 21 September 2013.Holotype: MNHNP 12044, adult male (Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay, San Lorenzo), collected by André L. G. de Carvalho, Pastor Enmanuel Perez-Estigarribia, Rodrigo Ayala, Johanna López, and Nestor Romero in 20 September 2013. Paratypes: AMNH-R 176304 (adult male), AMNH-R 176305 (adult female), MNHNP 11771 (subadult male), collected with the holotype. AMNH-R 176307 (adult male), AMNH-R 176308 (juvenile of undetermined sex), AMNH-R 176309 (adult female), MNHNP 11772 (adult male), MNHNP 11773 (subadult male), MNHNP 11774 (adult male), MNHNP 11775 (adult male), MNHNP 11776 (adult male), collected at Loma farm corral, Reserva Natural Cerrados del Tagatiya, Concepción, Paraguay (22° 31’ 5.495’’ S 57° 22’ 21.219’’ W, WGS84 system; ~377 m above sea level), by André L. G. de Carvalho, Pastor Enmanuel Perez-Estigarribia, Rodrigo Ayala, Johanna López, and Nestor Romero in 20 September 2013. AMNH-R 176310 (juvenile of undetermined sex), AMNH-R 176311 (adult male), MNHNP 11767 (subadult male), collected at Estancia Bello Horizonte pathway, Ñu Porã, Reserva Natural Cerrados del Tagatiya, Concepción, Paraguay (22° 45’ 5.350’’ S 57° 22’ 17.198’’ W, WGS84 system; 200 m above sea level), by André L. G. de Carvalho, Pastor Enmanuel Perez-Estigarribia, Rodrigo Ayala, Johanna López, and Nestor Romero in 21 September 2013. MNHNP 11766 (juvenile female), collected at Estancia Bello Horizonte pathway, Ñu Porã, Reserva Natural Cerrados del Tagatiya, Concepción, Paraguay (22° 47’ 26.34’’ S 57° 24’ 13.28’’ W, WGS84 system; 200 m above sea level), by André L. G. de Carvalho, Pastor Enmanuel Perez-Estigarribia, Rodrigo Ayala, Johanna López, and Nestor Romero in 21 September 2013. AMNH-R 176312 (adult male), AMNH-R 176313 (adult male), MNHNP 11768 (juvenile female), collected at the Parque Nacional Serranía San Luís (22° 38′ 54.056′′ S 57° 27′ 11.602′′ W, WGS84 system; 285 m above sea level), by André L. G. de Carvalho, Pastor Enmanuel Perez-Estigarribia, Rodrigo Ayala, Johanna López, and Nestor Romero in 21 September 2013 [tarara]
Holotype: MNHNP 12045, adult male (Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay, San Lorenzo), collected by André L. G. de Carvalho, Frederick Bauer, Nicolás Martínez, Viviana Espínola, and Marcelo Dujak in 10 August 2013 Paratypes: AMNH-R 176285 (adult female), MNHNP 11752–53 (two juveniles of undetermined sex), collected with the holotype; AMNH-R 176286 (adult male; 26° 3′ 9.529′′ S, 56° 48′ 28.357′′ W, WGS84 system; 201 m above sea level), AMNH-R 176287 (juvenile female; 26° 3′ 6.559′′ S, 56° 48′ 29.570′′ W, WGS84 system; 205 m above sea level), MNHNP 11754 (juvenile of undetermined sex; 26° 3′ 6.48′′ S, 56° 48′ 29.52′′ W, WGS84 system; 205 m above sea level), collected in Salto Mbocarusu, Parque Nacional Ybycui, Paraguarí, Paraguay, by André L. G. de Carvalho, Frederick Bauer, Nicolás Martínez, Viviana Espínola, Marcelo Dujak, Alejandro Bonzi, and Camila Corvalan in 11 August 2013. MNHNP 4361 (adult male), collected at the Parque Nacional Ybycui, Arroyo Corrientes, Salto Mbocaruzú, Paraguarí, Paraguay, by L. Fitzgerald in 1 May 1981. MNHNP 4383 (adult male), collected at the Parque Nacional Ybycui, Arroyo Corrientes, Salto Mbocaruzú, Paraguarí, Paraguay, by L. Fitzgerald and J. Fillion in 18 April 1981. MNHNP 4386 (adult female) and MNHNP 4388 (adult male) collected at the Parque Nacional Ybycui, Arroyo Corrientes, Salto Mbocaruzú, Paraguarí, Paraguay, by L. Fitzgerald in 23 January 1981. MNHNP 8505 (adult female), MNHNP 8508 (adult male), MNHNP 8509 (adult female), and MNHNP 8510 (adult female) collected at the Parque Nacional Ybycui, Arroyo Corrientes, Saltos Mbocaruzú Paraguarí, Paraguay, by L. Fitzgerald between 17–23 April 1981. MNHNP 8506 (adult female) and MNHNP 8507 (adult male) collected at the Parque Nacional Ybycui, Arroyo Corrientes, 2 km NO de Saltos, Paraguarí, Paraguay, by L. Fitzgerald between 22–23 January 1981 [teyumirim] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Tropidurus lagunablanca, n. sp., may be distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characteristics: (1) adult large and robust, reaching 113.09 and 94.59 mm SVL in males and females, respectively; (2) iris golden brown; (3) strongly projecting, serrate vertebral crest in males, reduced in females; (4) 1–2 canthals; (5) preocular not contacting canthal; (6) two rows of circumorbitals; (7) moderate tufts of neck spines; (8) high number of scales around midbody (100–113 in males and 107–114 in females); (9) sexes not extraordinarily dimorphic in body proportions, scutellation, and color pattern; (10) bright yellow lips in males; (11) orange coloration on the neck, posterior and lateral head (small greenish-blue spots, usually 2–3 scales in size, distributed frontally), extending posteriorly to form a vertebral stripe in males; (12) dorsum and flanks with gray background decorated with numerous greenish-blue light specks one scale in size or smaller, and irregular dark spots; (13) venter of head with dark and/or burnt orange spots, never exhibiting dark bars on the chin connected with a dark medial patch; (14) creamy yellow flash marks on the underside of the thighs and precloacal flap; (15) arboreal habits.

Comparison with Other Species: Tropidurus lagunablanca, n. sp., is likely to be confounded with T. tarara, n. sp., but differs from that species by having males with orange coloration on the neck and posteriormost and lateral parts of the head, and greenish-blue spots 1–3 scales in size decorating the head frontally; the orange coloration of the neck extends posteriorly forming a vertebral stripe composed of circular blotches of variable sizes somewhat similar to, but not as circular as the ones on the head (males of T. tarara, n. sp., exhibit orange coloration as blotches or spots over the whole head and neck, and orange vertebral stripe formed by circular or irregular blotches of variable sizes). In both species, a dark, reticulated pattern is found on the head and neck, delimiting individual orange or orangey cream circular blotches (and greenish-blue spots in the frontal head of males of T. lagunablanca, n. sp.). Females of T. lagunablanca, n. sp., have higher number of ventrals (88–89 in T. lagunablanca, n. sp.; 77–82 in T. tarara, n. sp.), gulars (73–77 in T. lagunablanca, n. sp.; 59–69 in T. tarara, n. sp.), scales around midbody (107–114 in T. lagunablanca, n. sp.; 95–104 in T. tarara, n. sp.), lamellae under fourth finger (20–21 in T. lagunablanca, n. sp.; 16–19 in T. tarara, n. sp.), and lamellae of four toe (26–27 in T. lagunablanca, n. sp.; 21–25 in T. tarara, n. sp.).
Tropidurus lagunablanca, n. sp., differs from T. teyumirim, n. sp., by having larger body size (89.35–113.09 mm SVL in males and 75.48–94.59 mm SVL in females of T. lagunablanca, n. sp.; 67.82–94.41 mm SVL in males and 61.41–80.79 mm SVL in females of T. teyumirim, n. sp.) and cream or creamy yellow flash marks on the underside of the thighs and precloacal flap (orange-yellow in T. teyumirim, n. sp.). Tropidurus lagunablanca, n. sp., may still be distinguished from T. guarani and T. teyumirim, n. sp., by having males with a strongly projecting, serrate vertebral crest (low in the latter forms) and bright yellow lips (lips not as intensely colored in yellow and presenting stronger black bars in the later forms), orange coloration of the neck extending posteriorly to form a well-marked vertebral stripe, and venter of head decorated with tiny dark and/or burnt orange spots (vertebral stripe absent or lightly pigmented in orange, and chin decorated with intense black bars oriented lateromedially, connecting with a dark medial patch posteriorly in the latter forms).
Tropidurus lagunablanca, n. sp., could be confused with T. xanthochilus both of which have intense yellow lips and a strongly projecting, serrate dorsal crest. However, the new species differs from the latter form by having much lower number vertebrals (56–64 in males and 67–87 in females of T. lagunablanca, n. sp.; 80–87 in males and 105–118 in females of T. xanthochilus), cream or creamy yellow flash marks on the underside of the thighs and precloacal flap (orange-yellow in T. xanthochilus), and iris golden brown (dark in T. xanthochilus).
Tropidurus lagunablanca, n. sp., is distinguished from T. spinulosus by presenting moderate tufts of spines laterally on neck (strongly projecting in T. spinulosus), dorsal background and flanks gray, scattered with greenish-blue light specks restricted to one scale or smaller (greenish-blue light specks absent in T. spinulosus), and higher number of scales around midbody (100–113 in males and 107–114 in females of T. lagunablanca, n. sp.; 77–98 in males and 82–95 in females of T. spinulosus). Tropidurus lagunablanca, n. sp., may be easily differentiated from T. callathelys and T. melanopleurus by presence of a gray background and lacking pronounced sexual dimorphism and dichromatism (males of T. callathelys are dark olive and females have a dark dorsal background and a flame scarlet head; males of T. melanopleurus have an intense orange head and complex dorsal coloration, with marked black background with light blotches anteriorly, transitioning into gray background with vivid green-yellow spots. Females have a brown head, black dorsal background laterally decorated with 4–6 red, cream, and green bands). Tropidurus lagunablanca, n. sp., is also distinguishable from T. callathelys and T. melanopleurus by having males with extremely serrate black and white vertebral crest, with touches of greenish blue (strongly serrate but very white, contrasting against the dark olive background in T. callathelys; low and similar in color to background in T. melanopleurus). The new species may also be differentiated by having two rows of circumorbital scales (one in T. callathelys and T. melanopleurus) and by lacking contact between preocular and canthal (preocular and posteriormost canthal in contact in T. melanopleurus). Unlike T. callathelys, T. guarani, T. melanopleurus, and T. teyumirim, n. sp., T. lagunablanca, n. sp., is arboreal (the former species are saxicolous).

Diagnosis (tarara): Tropidurus tarara, n. sp., differs from all congeners by the following combination of characteristics: (1) adult large and robust, reaching 122.82 and 93.97 mm SVL in males and females, respectively; (2) iris golden brown or orangish; (3) strongly projecting, serrate vertebral crest in males, reduced in females; (4) usually one, less frequently two canthals; (5) preocular not contacting canthal; (6) two rows of circumorbitals; (7) moderate tufts of neck spines; (8) intermediate number of scales around midbody (92–112 in males and 95–104 in females); (9) sexes not extraordinarily dimorphic in body proportions, scutellation, and color pattern; (10) bright yellow or greenish-yellow lips in males; (12) orange coloration spread as blotches or spots over the whole head and neck, extending posteriorly to form a vertebral stripe in males; (13) dorsum and flanks with gray background decorated with numer- ous greenish-blue light specks restricted to one scale or smaller, and numerous irregular dark spots; (14) ventral head with dark and/or burnt orange spots, never exhibiting lateromedially oriented dark bars on the chin, connecting with dark medial patch; (15) cream flash marks on the underside of the thighs and precloacal flap; (16) arboreal habits.

Comparison with Other Species (tarara): Tropidurus tarara, n. sp., is most similar to T. lagunablanca, n. sp., but can be distinguished by the orange coloration spread as blotches or spots of variables sizes over the whole head and neck, extending posteriorly to form a vertebral stripe in males (T. lagunablanca, n. sp., exhibits orange coloration on the neck and posterior- most part of the head, and greenish-blue spots 1–3 scales in size anteriorly on head; an orange vertebral stripe is also present). In both species, a dark, reticulate pattern is present on the head and neck, defining individual orange or orangey cream circular blotches (and greenish-blue spots anteriorly on the head of males of T. lagunablanca, n. sp.). Females of T. tarara, n. sp., have lower number of ventrals (77–82 in T. tarara, n. sp., 88–89 in T. lagunablanca, n. sp.), gulars (58–69 in T. tarara, n. sp.; 73–77 in T. lagunablanca, n. sp.), scales around midbody (95–104 in T. tarara, n. sp.; 107–114 in T. lagunablanca, n. sp.), lamellae under fourth finger (16–19 in T. tarara, n. sp.; 20–21 in T. lagunablanca, n. sp.), and lamellae of fourth toe (21–25 in T. tarara, n. sp.; 26–27 in T. lagunablanca, n. sp.).
Tropidurus tarara, n. sp., differs from T. guarani and T. teyumirim, n. sp., by having males with a strongly projecting, serrate vertebral crest (low in the latter forms), bright yellow or greenish-yellow lips not decorated with intense dark vertical bars (lips not as intensely colored in yellow and presenting strong black bars in the later form), irregularly arranged orange spots on head and coloration of the head extending posteriorly to form a well-marked vertebral stripe middorsally, and ventral surface of head with dark and/or burnt orange spots (vertebral stripe absent or lightly pigmented in orange, and chin with intense black bars oriented latero- medially, connecting with a dark medial patch posteriorly in the latter forms). Tropidurus tarara, n. sp., may also be distinguished from T. teyumirim, n. sp., by having cream flash marks on the underside of the thighs and precloacal flap (orange-yellow in T. teyumirim, n. sp.) and much larger body (98.04–122.82 mm SVL in males and 88.35–93.97 mm SVL in females of T. tarara, n. sp.; 67.82–94.41 mm SVL in males and 61.41–80.79 mm SVL in females of T. teyu- mirim, n. sp.). Tropidurus tarara, n. sp., could be confused with T. xanthochilus, which also has intense yellow lips and strongly projecting, serrate dorsal crest, but differs from that form by having much lower number of vertebrals (48–65 in males and 69–85 in females of T. tarara, n. sp.; 80–87 in males and 105–118 in females of T. xanthochilus), cream flash marks on the underside of the thighs and precloacal flap (orange-yellow in T. xanthochilus), and iris golden brown or orangish (dark in T. xanthochilus).
Tropidurus tarara, n. sp., differs from T. spinulosus by presenting moderate tufts of spines on lateral neck (strongly projecting in T. spinulosus), a dorsal background gray scattered with greenish-blue light specks restricted to one scale or smaller (light specks absent in T. spinulo- sus), higher number of scales around midbody (92–112 in males and 95–104 in females of T. tarara, n. sp.; 77–98 in males and 82–95 in females of T. spinulosus). Tropidurus tarara, n. sp., is easily distinguished from T. callathelys and T. melanopleurus by presenting gray background and by lacking pronounced sexual dimorphism and dichromatism (males of T. callathelys are dark olive and females have a dark dorsal background and a flame scarlet head; males of T. melanopleurus have an intense orange head and complex dorsal coloration, with marked black background with light blotches anteriorly, transitioning into gray background with vivid green- yellow spots. Females have a brown head, black dorsal background laterally decorated with 4–6 red, cream, and green bands. Another clear distinction between T. tarara, n. sp., T. callathelys, and T. melanopleurus is the extremely serrate black and white vertebral crest present in males of the new species (strongly serrate but very white, contrasting against the dark olive back- ground in T. callathelys; low and similar in color to background in T. melanopleurus). Tropidu- rus tarara, n. sp., may also be differentiated by having two rows of circumorbital scales (one in T. callathelys and T. melanopleurus) and by lacking contact between preocular and canthal (preocular and posteriormost canthal in contact in T. melanopleurus). Unlike T. callathelys, T. guarani, T. melanopleurus, and T. teyumirim, n. sp., T. tarara, n. sp., is arboreal (the former species are saxicolous).

Diagnosis (teyumirim): Tropidurus teyumirim, n. sp., differs from all congeners by the following combination of characteristics: (1) small-sized adult, reaching 94.41 and 80.79 mm SVL in males and females, respectively; (2) body slightly depressed; (3) large number of vertebral scales (60–83 in males and 79–112 in females); (4) iris golden brown; (5) low vertebral crest in males, reduced in females; (6) one canthal; (7) preocular not contacting canthal; (8) two rows of circumorbitals; (9) reduced tufts of neck spines; (10) sexes not extraordinarily dimorphic in body proportions, scutellation, and color pattern; (11) lips decorated with touches of yellow and intense black vertical bars; (12) ventral head decorated with well-marked black bars oriented lateromedi- ally on chin, connecting posteriorly with a dark medial patch; (13) orange-yellow flash marks on the underside of the thighs and precloacal flap; (14) saxicolous habits.

Comparisons (teyumirim): Tropidurus teyumirim, n. sp., differs from all other congeners by having smaller size (67.82–94.41 and 61.41–80.79 mm SVL in males and females, respectively). This species is most similar with T. guarani, but differs from the latter by having orange-yellow flash marks on the underside of the thighs and precloacal flap (yellow or creamy yellow in T. guarani) and higher number of vertebral scales (51–68 in males and 90–98 in females of T. guarani; 60–83 in males and 79–112 in females of T. teyumirim, n. sp.). Unlike T. lagunablanca, n. sp., T. spinulosus, T. tarara, n. sp., and T. xanthochilus, T. teyumirim, n. sp., exhibits a low vertebral crest (strongly projecting, serrate vertebral crest in the former species), intensely marked black bars on chin, posteriorly reaching a medial dark patch that separates two burnt orange areas on each side of the posterior ventral head, and intensely dark pig- mented throat and chest (other patterns in the former species), body slightly depressed (robust body in the former species), and saxicolous habit (former species are arboreal). Tropidurus teyumirim, n. sp., also differ from T. spinulosus and T. xanthochilus in the number of vertebrals (40–56 in males and 55–81 in females of T. spinulosus; 80–87 in males and 105–118 in females of T. xanthochilus; 60–83 in males and 79–112 in females of T. teyumirim, n. sp.) and scales around midbody (77–98 in males and 82–95 in females of T. spinulosus; 94–107 in males and 94–112 in females of T. teyumirim, n. sp.). Tropidurus teyumirim, n. sp., is easily distinguished from T. spinulosus, T. lagunablanca, n. sp., and T. tarara, n. sp., by having orange-yellow flash marks on the underside of thighs and precloacal flap (cream in T. spinulosus and yellow or creamy yellow in T. lagunablanca, n. sp., and T. tarara, n. sp.).
Tropidurus teyumirim, n. sp., is readily distinguished from T. callathelys and T. melanopleu- rus by having a gray dorsal background and by lacking pronounced sexual dimorphism and dichromatism (males of T. callathelys are dark olive and females have a dark dorsal background and flame scarlet head; males of T. melanopleurus have intense orange head and complex dorsal coloration, with marked black background with light blotches anteriorly, transitioning into a gray background with vivid green-yellow spots, and females have a brown head, black dorsal background laterally decorated with 4–6 red, cream and green bands). Tropidurus teyumirim, n. sp., also differs from T. callathelys and T. melanopleurus by having a low black and white dorsal crest (strongly serrate and distinctly white, contrasting against the dark olive back- ground in T. callathelys; low and similar in color to background in T. melanopleurus). Unlike T. callathelys and T. melanopleurus, T. teyumirim, n. sp., has two rows of circumorbital scales (usually one in the former species) and lacks contact between preocular and canthal (preocular and posteriormost canthal in contact in T. callathelys and T. melanopleurus).
 
CommentIllustrations: CARVALHO 2016.

Abundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017).

Synonymy: mostly after Cacciali & Köhler 2018 who synonymized T. tarara and T. teyumirim with T. lagunablanca based on low genetic differentiation and overall morphological similarity.

NCBI taxID: 2052814 [tarara]
NCBI taxID: 2052823 [teyumirim] 
EtymologyThe epithet lagunablanca, an indeclinable word, refers to the type locality of the new species, the Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, located in Santa Rosa del Aguaray, Department of San Pedro, Paraguay.

The specific epithet tarara (pronounced ta-ra-rá) is an indeclinable word. In Guarani language, “tarara” is both a verb and a noun that refers to making strong, repetitive sounds (or to the sound itself) by clattering the teeth. The word tarara is also employed colloquially as an adjective meaning “unquiet” or “restless.” The epithet “tarara” makes reference to this colloquial meaning, and alludes to the remarkable behavior of T. tarara, n. sp. (and other congeners), which use series of head bobs and body push-ups for visual communication and territorial displays.

The specific epithet, teyumirim, is a newly coined, indeclinable word derived from the juxtaposition of the noun teyu (= “lizard”) and the adjective mirim (= “little”), literally meaning “little lizard,” in Guarani language. The name alludes to the reduced size of T. teyumirim, n. sp., the smallest species of the T. spinulosus species group known to date. 
References
  • Alvarez B B. Cei J M. Scolaro J A. 1994. A new subspecies of Tropidurus spinulosus (Cope 1862) from the subtropical wet mesic Paraguayan region (Reptilia Squamata Tropiduridae). Tropical Zoology 7 (1): 161-179 - get paper here
  • Aquino, Aida Luz; Norman J. Scott & Martha Motte 1996. Lista de Anfibios y Reptiles del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural do Paraguay (Mano, 1980 - Setiembre, 1995). In: Romero, O.R. (ed.), Coleccion de Flora y Fauna del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay. Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay, Asuncion, pp. 331-400
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