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Uroplatus kelirambo RATSOAVINA, GEHRING, SCHERZ, VIEITES, GLAW & VENCES, 2017

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymUroplatus kelirambo RATSOAVINA, GEHRING, SCHERZ, VIEITES, GLAW & VENCES 2017
Uroplatus sp. E — RAXWORTHY et al. 2008b
Uroplatus sp. 2 — RATSOAVINA et al. 2011
Uroplatus ebenaui [Ca2] — RATSOAVINA et al. 2012
Uroplatus ebenaui [Ca2] — RATSOAVINA et al. 2013
Uroplatus ebenaui [Ca2] — RATSOAVINA et al. 2015 
DistributionN Madagascar (Antsiranana Province, Tsaratanana mountain)

Type locality: Matsaborimaiky camp site in the Tsaratanana mountain massif, Antsiranana Province, northern Madagascar, 14.1526°S, 48.9573°E, 2021 m elevation.  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: ZSM 641/2014 (field number DRV 6192), adult male with everted hemipenes, collected on the night of 13 June 2010, by D. Vieites, M. Vences, F. M. Ratsoavina, F. Randrianasolo, R. D. Randrianiaina, S. Rasamison, A. Rakotoarison, E. Rajeriarison and T. Rajoafiarison. Paratypes. ZSM 642/2014 (DRV 6250) and ZSM 643/2014 (DRV 6251), two adult males, and ZSM 1832/2010 (ZCMV 12388), an adult female, all with same collection data as the holotype. 
DiagnosisUroplatus kelirambo sp. nov. is included in the Uroplatus ebenaui group of small-sized leaf-tailed geckos due to its triangular head with supraocular spines, laterally compressed body, and short tail. It differs from all members of the U. fimbriatus group (U. fimbriatus, U. giganteus, U. henkeli, U. sikorae and U. sameiti) and U. lineatus by its much smaller size (adult SVL 53.1–63.4 mm versus at least 85 mm), lack of lateral dermal fringes on any part of the body, and lateral compression of the body (versus depressed body shape with lateral integumentary fringes), and a relatively much shorter tail. The evident triangular head, rather smooth skin and short tail distinguish U. kelirambo from U. alluaudi, U. guentheri, U. malahelo and U. pietschmanni. Within the U. ebenaui group, the blackish oral mucosa distinguishes U. kelirambo from U. fiera, U. finiavana and U. fotsivava (oral mucosa unpigmented). Furthermore, the new species differs from all species by the unique elongated shape and small size of its tail. In particular, it differs from U. finiavana, U. malama and U. phantasticus by a shorter tail (adult TAL/SVL 0.35–0.44 vs. 0.48 in U. finiavana, 0.72 in U. malama, and 0.62–0.76 in U. phantasticus), and from U. fiera and U. fotsivava by a longer tail (adult TAL/SVL 0.35–0.44 vs. 0.28–0.34 in U. fiera and 0.15–0.32 in U. fotsivava). It differs from all other nominal species of the U. ebenaui group by a narrower tail; this is obvious from the lower values of the ratio TAW/SVL (0.04–0.05 vs. 0.24 in U. malama, 0.16–0.20 in U. phantasticus, 0.11 in U. finiavana, 0.06–0.07 in U. fiera, 0.05–0.09 in U. ebenaui and 0.07–0.1 in U. fotsivava), but especially in values of the ratio TAW/TAL (0.10–0.13 vs. 0.33 in U. malama, 0.25–0.29 in U. phantasticus, 0.23 in U. finiavana, 0.19–0.21 in U. fiera, 0.13–0.27 in U. ebenaui and 0.17–0.32 in U. fotsivava). In direct comparison to U. finiavana, the closest relative of U. kelirambo among the nominal species of Uroplatus, the new species is thus distinguished by its tail shape and size, and the pigmented (vs. unpigmented) oral mucosa. 
Comment 
EtymologyThe specific epithet kelirambo is composed of the Malagasy words for small (kely) and tail (rambo). The name refers to the small and very thin tail of this species, but also points to the movie character Rambo and his toughness. This species shares with other members of the U. ebenaui group a grim, Rambo-esque expression, and is tough, surviving at exceptionally high altitudes, unique among Madagascar’s nocturnal geckos. The name is an invariable noun in apposition. 
References
  • Ratsoavina, F. M., N. R. Raminosoa, E. E. Louis Jr., A. P. Raselimanana, F. Glaw & M. Vences 2013. An overview of Madagascar’s leaf tailed geckos (genus Uroplatus): species boundaries, candidate species and review of geographical distribution based on molecular data. Salamandra 49 (3): 115-148 - get paper here
  • RATSOAVINA, FANOMEZANA M.; PHILIP-SEBASTIAN GEHRING, MARK D. SCHERZ, DAVID R. VIEITES, FRANK GLAW & MIGUEL VENCES 2017. Two new species of leaf-tailed geckos (Uroplatus) from the Tsaratanana mountain massif in northern Madagascar. Zootaxa 4347 (3): 446–464 - get paper here
  • RATSOAVINA, FANOMEZANA MIHAJA; EDWARD E. LOUIS JR., ANGELICA CROTTINI, ROGER-DANIEL RANDRIANIAINA, FRANK GLAW & MIGUEL VENCES 2011. A new leaf tailed gecko species from northern Madagascar with a preliminary assessment of molecular and morphological variability in the Uroplatus ebenaui group. Zootaxa 3022: 39–57 - get paper here
  • RATSOAVINA, FANOMEZANA MIHAJA; FIADANANTSOA ANDRIANJA RANJANAHARISOA, FRANK GLAW, ACHILLE P. RASELIMANANA, AURÉLIEN MIRALLES, MIGUEL VENCES 2015. A new leaf-tailed gecko of the Uroplatus ebenaui group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Madagascar's central eastern rainforests Zootaxa 4006 (1): 143–160 - get paper here
  • Ratsoavina, Fanomezana Mihaja; Miguel Vences & Edward E. Louis Jr. 2012. Phylogeny and phylogeography of the Malagasy leaf-tailed geckos in the Uroplatus ebenaui group. African Journal of Herpetology 61 (2): 143-158 - get paper here
  • Raxworthy, C.J., Pearson, R.G., Zimkus, B.M., Reddy, S., Deo, A.J., Nussbaum, R.A. & Ingram, C.M. 2008. Continental speciation in the tropics: contrasting biogeographic patterns of divergence in the Uroplatus leaf-tailed gecko radiation of Madagascar. Journal of Zoology 275: 423–440
 
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