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Varanus exanthematicus (BOSC, 1792)

IUCN Red List - Varanus exanthematicus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaVaranidae, Platynota, Anguimorpha, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Savannah Monitor
G: Steppenwaran 
SynonymLacerta exanthematicus BOSC 1792: 25
Varanus exanthematicus MERREM 1820: 60
Varanus ocellatus HEYDEN in RÜPPELL 1830: 21 (fide MERTENS 1963: 7)
Varanus ocellatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 496
Varanus ocellatus — BOULENGER 1885: 308
Varanus ocellatus — LOVERIDGE 1936: 59
Varanus exanthematicus — BOULENGER 1885: 308
Varanus exanthematicus — SCHMIDT 1919: 480
Varanus ocellatus — WERNER 1919: 485
Varanus exanthematicus ocellatus — MERTENS 1938
Varanus exanthematicus — DE LISLE 1996: 123
Varanus (Polydaedalus) exanthematicus — BÖHME 2002
Varanus exanthematicus — TRAPE, CHIRIO & TRAPE 2012
Varanus (Polydaedalus) exanthematicus — BUCKLITSCH et al. 2016: 50 
DistributionMauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea (Conakry), Sierra Leone, Liberia, Mali, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Uganda, N Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Zimbabwe

USA (introduced to Florida)

Type locality: "ad fluvium Senegal" = Senegal River. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MNHN (lost fide de LISLE 2009: 17) 
CommentHunted as food by local people in Mali (Joger & Lambert 1996).

Distribution: possibly introduced to Mexico (Jalisco); For a detailed distrubtion map and locality data see BAYLESS (2002). 
References
  • Akeret, B. 2010. Sukkulenten und andere Pflanzen für das Trockenterrarium. Draco 11 (41): 44-53 - get paper here
  • Akeret, Beat 2014. Geschichtliches zur Haltung von Waranen in Deutschland und der Schweiz. Terraria-Elaphe 2014 (6): 14-21 - get paper here
  • Barnett, Linda K. 2001. The herpetofauna of Abuko Nature Reserve, the Gambia. Herpetological Bulletin (77): 5-1 - get paper here
  • Barnett, Linda K. & Emms, Craig 2005. Common reptiles of The Gambia. Rare Repro, Hailsham, East Sussex, 24 pp.
  • Bayless, M.K. 1994. Zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie des Steppenwarans (Varanus exanthematicus). Salamandra 30 (2): 109-118 - get paper here
  • Bayless, Mark K. 2002. Monitor lizards: a pan-African check-list of their zoogeography (Sauria: Varanidae: Polydaedalus). Journal of Biogeography 29: 1643–1701
  • Bennett, Daniel 1992. Bosc's monitor lizard. Reptilian 1 (2): 25-27
  • Bennett,Daniel 2000. The density and abundance of juvenile Varanus exanthematicus (Sauria: Varandiae) in the coastal plain of Ghana. Amphibia-Reptilia 21 (3): 301-306 - get paper here
  • Böhme, Wolfgang, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Christian Brede & Philipp Wagner 2011. The reptiles (Testudines, Squamata, Crocodylia) of the forested southeast of the Republic Guinea (Guinée forestière), with a country-wide checklist. Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 35-61 - get paper here
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp.
  • Bosc, L. 1792. Lacerta exanthematica. Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 1: 25 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1962. On some reptile collections from the North-Western and North-Eastern Districts of Southern Rhodesia 1958-1961, with descriptions of four new lizards. Occ. Pap. Nat. Mus. South. Rhodesia 26 (B): 787-843
  • Broadley, D.G. 1998. The reptilian fauna of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa). In: Schmidt, K.P. and Noble, G.K., Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgian Congo... [reprint of the 1919 and 1923 papers]. SSAR Facsimile reprints in Herpetology, 780 pp.
  • Brygoo, E. R. 1987. Les types de Varanides (Reptiles, Sauriens) du Museum national d'Histoire naturelle. Catalogue critique. Bulletin du Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, 4e ser., 9, sect. A (Zool., BioI. & Ecol. anim.), (2), supplement, 21-38.
  • Chirio, L. 2009. Inventaire des reptiles de la région de la Réserve de Biosphère Transfrontalière du W (Niger/Bénin/Burkina Faso: Afrique de l’Ouest). [Herpetological survey of the W Transfrontier Biosphere Reserve area (Niger/Benin/Burkina Faso: West Africa]. Bull. Soc. Herp. France (132): 13-41 - get paper here
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Coiro, J. 2007. Captive Breeding of Varanus exanthematicus. Biawak 1 (1): 29-33 - get paper here
  • Cupul-Magaña, Fabio Germán 2012. Varanus exanthematicus (Bosc, 1792), Apalone spinifera emoryi (Le Sueur, 1827) y Gopherus berlandieri (Agassiz, 1857): reptiles exóticos en el área urbana de Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México. Cuadernos de Herpetología 26 (1): - get paper here
  • De Lisle, H.F. 1996. Natural History of Monitor Lizards. Krieger, Malabar (Florida)
  • Earley, Ryan L.; Omar Attum, Perri Eason 2002. Varanid combat: perspectives from game theory. Amphibia-Reptilia 23 (4): 469-485 - get paper here
  • FRÝDLOVÁ, PETRA and DANIEL FRYNTA 2010. A test of Rensch’s rule in varanid lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 100: 293–306 - get paper here
  • JACOBSEN, N.H.G. 2009. A contribution to the herpetofauna of the Passendro Area, Central African Republic. African Herp News (47): 2-20
  • Joger, U. 2010. Projekt Dino: Auf Dinosaurierjagd in Niger, Afrika. Elaphe 18 (1): 6-13
  • Krysko, K.K.; Enge, K.M.; Donlan, E.M.; Golden, E.Z.; Burgess, J.P. & Larson, K.W. 2009. THE NON-MARINE HERPETOFAUNA OF KEY BISCAYNE, FLORIDA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 5 (1):132-142 - get paper here
  • Largen, M.J.; Spawls, S. 2010. Amphibians and Reptiles of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 694 pp.
  • Laurent,R.F. 1964. A new subspecies of Varanus exanthematicus (Sauria, Varanidae). Breviora (199): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Leaché, Adam D.; Mark-Oliver Rödel, Charles W. Linkem, Raul E. Diaz, Annika<br />Hillers, and Matthew K. Fujita 2006. Biodiversity in a forest island: reptiles and amphibians of the Togo Hills, Kyabobo National Park, Ghana. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 4 (1): 22-45 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1923. Notes on East African lizards collected 1920-1923 with the description of two new races of Agama lionotus Blgr. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1923: 935-969 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • McCurry MR, Mahony M, Clausen PD, Quayle MR, Walmsley CW, Jessop TS, et al. 2015. The Relationship between Cranial Structure, Biomechanical Performance and Ecological Diversity in Varanoid Lizards. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0130625. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130625 - get paper here
  • Merrem, B. 1820. Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien I (Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum). J. C. Kriegeri, Marburg, 191 pp.
  • Mertens, R. 1938. Über eine herpetologische Sammlung aus dem Gebiete des Njarasa-Grabens Ost-Afrikas. Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Übersee-Museum in Bremen 2 (1): 1-9 [no page numbers]
  • Padial, J. M. 2006. COMMENTED DISTRIBUTIONAL LIST OF THE REPTILES OF MAURITANIA (WEST AFRICA). Graellsia, 62(2): 159-178
  • Pianka, E. R. and D. R. King, eds. 2004. Varanoid Lizards of the World. Indiana University Press, 599 pp - get paper here
  • Rese, R. 1983. Seltene Nachzucht im Terrarium - Die Zucht des Steppenwarans Varanus exanthematicus. Sauria 5 (3): 25-28 - get paper here
  • Rese, R. 1988. Beitrag zur Lebenserwartung von Grosswaranen in Gefangenschaft. Sauria 10 (1): 25-26 - get paper here
  • Rödel,M. O., Grabow,K., Hallermann,J. & Böckheler,C. 1997. Die Echsen des Comoé-Nationalparks, Elfenbeinküste. Salamandra 33 (4): 225-240 - get paper here
  • Röder, A. & H.-G. Horn 1994. Über zwei Nachzuchten des Steppenwarans (Varanus exanthematicus) Salamandra 30 (2): 97-108 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, Uwe 2010. Ernährung nord- und westafrikanischer Warane in der Natur und bei Terrarienhaltung. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (86): 36-45 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl Patterson 1919. Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgian Congo based on the Collection of the American Congo Expedition, 1909-1915. Part I: turtles, crocodiles, lizards, and chamaeleons. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39 (2): 385-624 - get paper here
  • Segniagbeto, Gabriel Hoinsoude; Jean-François Trape, Komlan M. Afiademanyo, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Annemarie Ohler, Alain Dubois, Patrick David, Danny Meirte, Isabelle Adolé Glitho, Fabio Petrozzi, and Luca Luiselli 2015. Checklist of the lizards of Togo (West Africa), with comments on systematics, distribution, ecology, and conservation. Zoosystema 37 (2): 381-402 - get paper here
  • Soler, J. 2013. Feral Monitor Lizards (Varanus spp.) in Catalonia, Spain: an increasing Phenomenon Biawak 7 (1): 21 - get paper here
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Sternfeld,R. 1917. Reptilia und Amphibia. In: Schubotz, H. (Hrsg.): Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition, 1910-1911 unter Führung Adolph Friedrichs, Herzog zu Mecklenburg. Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann, [Band] 1, Zoologie, Lieferung 11; S. 407-510. - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F.; Trape, S. & Chirio, L. 2012. Lézards, crocodiles et tortues d'Afrique occidentale et du Sahara. IRD Orstom, 503 pp. - get paper here
  • Ullenbruch, K.; Grell, O.; Böhme, W. 2010. Reptiles from southern Benin, West Africa, with the description of a new Hemidactylus (Gekkonidae), and a country-wide checklist. Bonn Zool. Bull. 57 (1): 31-54 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2015. Jurassic World im Wohnzimmer. Mini-Dinos für das Terrarium Reptilia (Münster) 20 (114): 26-37 - get paper here
  • Wesiak, K. 2006. Zur Pflege und Nachzucht des westafrikanischen Steppenwarans Varanus (Polydaedalus) exanthematicus (BOSC, 1792). Elaphe 14 (3): 21-34
  • Witte, G. F. de 1933. Reptiles récoltés au Conge Belge par le Dr. H. Schouteden et par M. G.-F. Witte. Ann. Mus. Conge belge Zool. Ser. 1 Tome III: 53-100.
 
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