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Vipera renardi (CHRISTOPH, 1861)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesVipera renardi renardi (CHRISTOPH 1861)
Vipera renardi bashkirovi GARANIN, PAVLOV & BAKIEV in BAKIEV et al. 2004
Vipera renardi parursinii NILSON & ANDRÉN 2001
Vipera renardi puzanovi KUKUSKIN 2009
Vipera renardi tienshanica NILSON & ANDRÉN 2001 
Common NamesE: Steppe Viper
G: Steppenotter 
SynonymPelias renardi CHRISTOPH 1861: 599
Vipera ursinii renardi — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Vipera renardi renardi — WELCH 1994: 123
Vipera (Pelias) renardi — NILSON et al. 1999: 101
Vipera ursinii — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 409
Vipera (Pelias) renardi — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Vipera ursinii — ZHAO 2006
Pelias renardi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 544

Vipera renardi bashkirovi GARANIN, PAVLOV & BAKIEV in BAKIEV et al. 2004
Vipera renardi bashkirovi — KUCHARZEWSKI 2011
Vipera renardi bashkirovi — ZINENKO et al. 2015

Vipera renardi parursinii NILSON & ANDRÉN 2001
Vipera [renardi] parursinii — TUNIYEV et al. 2010
Vipera renardi parursinii — ZINENKO et al. 2015

Vipera renardi puzanovi KUKUSKIN 2009
Vipera renardi puzanovi — ZINENKO et al. 2015

Vipera renardi tienshanica NILSON & ANDRÉN 2001
Vipera [renardi] tienshanica — TUNIYEV et al. 2010
Vipera renardi tienshanica — KUCHARZEWSKI 2011
Vipera renardi tienshanica — ZINENKO et al. 2015 
DistributionUkraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kirgiziya, Uzbekistan, Tadzikistan, Mongolia, China

bashkirovi: Spassky Archipelago, Kuybyshev Reservoir (Vodokhranilische), south-western Tatarstan.

parursinii: mountain steppes in N Xinjiang, NW China.

puzanovi: Mountain Crimea.

tienshanica: Kyrgyzstan, E Uzbekistan, N Tajikistan, SE Kazakhstan (Tien Shan mountains), NW China ?

Type locality: Tawrow in don and Tambow in the steppes (Russia). “Sarepta" [Russia]. [Treated as a subspecies by Schwarz (1936:186)]. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionovoviviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: Lost, according to G. Nilson (pers. comm.). A specimen (BMNH 1893.11.18.1) in the British Museum is from the type-locality but not part of the type series (G. Nilson, pers. comm.). 
CommentVenomous!

Subspecies: Vipera renardi eriwanensis has been elevated to species status. Vipera renardi is treated as synonym of V. ursinii by MCDIARMID et al. (1999). Vipera lotievi is considered as a subspecies of V. renardi by some authors. A single sequence of V. r. parursinii from GenBank (Ferchaud et al., 2012) nested inside V. r. tienshanica haplotype ET in spite of a unique combination of morphological peculiarities of this taxon according to description (Nilson and Andrén, 2001).

Vipera renardi bashkirovi can be distinguised from the nominate form by the following characters: total length up to 710 mm; ventrals 120-154; subcaudals 22-35; 19-21 scales around midbody (B. Baker, pers. comm.).

Distribution: not in Romania, fide Tibor Sos (pers. comm., 25. Dec 2015, see also his website). 
EtymologyVipera renardi has been named after Karl Renard (1809-1886), former president of the Imperial Moscow Society of Naturalists.
Vipera renardi bashkirovi was named after Ivan Sergeyevich Bashkirov (1900-1980), Russian zoologist who discovered the steppe viper in the north Lower Volga region.
Vipera renardi puzanovi was named after Ivan Ivanovich Puzanov (1885-1971), famous Russian zoologist who studied the fauna of the Crimea. 
References
  • Ananjeva, NB, Orlov NL; Khalikov RG; Darevsky IS; Ryabov IS & Barabanov AV 2006. The Reptiles of North Eurasia. Taxonomic Diversity, Distribution, Conservation Status [this comprises the territory of the former Soviet Union and Mongolia]. Pensoft Series Faunistica 47, 250 pp.
  • BAKIEV, Andrei. G., GARANIN, V. I., LITVINOV, N. A., PAVLOV, A. V. & RATNIKOV, V. Y. 2004. Snakes of Volzhsko-Kamskij Region. Samara, Samara [in Russian]. Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences Publishing, 192 pp.
  • Belik V.P. 2014. To the history of research on the amphibian and reptile fauna in the Volgograd Region. Current Studies in Herpetology 14 (1/2): 3–13. Резюме - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1913. The snakes of Europe. Methusen & Co. Ltd, London, 151 pp.
  • Christoph, H. 1861. Pelias renardi mihi. Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscow, 34: 599-606 - get paper here
  • Dujsebayeva, T. N. (ed.) 2010. Short review of last changes in the checklist of amphibians and reptiles of Kazakhstan. [in Russian]. In: Dujsebayeva, T. N. (ed.) Herpetological Researches in Kazakhstan and adjacent countries, p. 37-52
  • Gvoždík, Václav; David Jandzik, Bogdan Cordos, Ivan Rehák, Petr Kotlík 2011. A mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of the endangered vipers of the Vipera ursinii complex. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • KRECSÁK, L. & TÓTH, T. 2005. Biting among male Steppe Vipers Vipera renardi (CHRISTOPH, 1861) [Short Note]. Herpetozoa 18: 188- 189 - get paper here
  • KUCHARZEWSKI, C 2011. OLD WORLD VIPERS. A natural history of the Azemiopinae and Viperinae von Tony PHELPS – Anmerkungen, Ergänzungen, Korrekturen. Sauria 33 (3): 19-42 - get paper here
  • Kukuskin, Oleg V. 2009. Vipera renardi puzanovi ssp. nov. (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) as a new subspecies of steppe viper from mountain Crimea. Sovremennaya Gerpetologiya, 9(1-2) 2009: 18-40 - get paper here
  • Kukuskin, Oleg V. & Oleksandr I. Zinenko 2006. Morphological peculiarities and their possible bearing on the taxonomic status of the Crimean montane populations of the Steppe Viper, Vipera renardi (Christoph, 1861). Herpetologica Bonnensis II: 61-66 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2010. Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart, 252 pp.
  • Malenyov A.L., Gorelov R.A., Atyasheva T.N., Bakiev A.G. 2016. Venom's yield and venom's properties of eastern steppe viper Vipera renardi at different times of its seasonal activity. [in Russian] Current Studies in Herpetology, 16(3/4): 129–134 - get paper here
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Nilson, G., Andrén, C. 2001. The meadow and steppe vipers of Europe and Asia — the Vipera (Acridophaga) ursinii complex. Acta Zool. Acad. Scien. Hung. 47: 87-267.
  • Nilson,G.; ANDRÉN,C. & JOGER,U. 1993. A re-evaluation of the taxonomic status of the Moldavian steppe viper based on immunological investigations, with a discussion of the hypothesis of secondary intergradation between Vipera ursinii rakosiensis and Vipera (ursinii) renardi. Amphibia-Reptilia 14: 45-57 - get paper here
  • Nilson,G.; TUNIYEV,B.; ANDRÉN,C. & ORLOV,N. 1999. Vipers of Caucasus: Taxonomic considerations. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 103-106
  • Olivier, R. 2008. Kleine gifslangengalerij. Lacerta 66 (1-3): 47-57 - get paper here
  • Orlov,N.L. & B.S. Tuniyev. 1990. Three Species in the Vipera kaznakowi Complex (Eurosiberian Group) in the Caucasus: Their Present Distribution, Possile Genesis, and Phylogeny. Asiatic Herpetological Research 3: 1-36. - get paper here
  • Ostrovskikh, Sergei V. 2006. Morphological variability of Eastern Meadow Viper - Vipera (Pelias) renardi in the north-western Caucasus. Modern Herpetology 5/6:61-70.
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Schweiger, M. 2009. Die Giftschlangen Europas. Eine Übersicht der Arten und Bemerkungen zu einzelnen Taxa. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (76): 14-25 - get paper here
  • Tabachishina, I. E., V. G. Tabachishin and G. V. Shlyakhtin. 2007. On revision of the northern boundary of the Vipera renardi habitat in the Volga region. Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology 2007(3):271-277
  • Tuniyev, B.; Nilson, G. & Andrén, C. 2010. A new species of viper (Reptilia, Viperidae) from the Altay and Saur Mountains, Kazakhstan. Russ. J. Herpetol. 17 (2): 110-120 - get paper here
  • Tuniyev, S. B.; N. Orlov, B. Tuniyev, A. Kidov 2013. On the Taxonomical Status of Steppe Viper from Foothills of the South Macroslope of the East Caucasus. Russ. J. Herpetol. 20 (2): 129-146 - get paper here
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wettstein, Otto vor. 1953. Vipera renardi aus Persien. Zool. Anz. 150 (11/12): 266-268
  • Zinenko, Oleksandr; Nikolaus Stümpel, Lyudmila Mazanaeva, Andrey Bakiev, Konstantin Shiryaev, Aleksey Pavlov, Tatiana Kotenko, Oleg Kukushkin, Yury Chikin, Tatiana Dujsebayeva, Göran Nilson, Nikolai L. Orlov, Sako Tuniyev, Natalia B. Ananjeva, Robert 2015. Mitochondrial phylogeny shows multiple independent ecological transitions and northern dispersion despite of Pleistocene glaciations in meadow and steppe vipers (Vipera ursinii and Vipera renardi). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 85-100; doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.12.005 - get paper here
 
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