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Xenocalamus bicolor GÜNTHER, 1868

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Higher TaxaLamprophiidae, Aparallactinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesXenocalamus bicolor australis FITZSIMONS 1946
Xenocalamus bicolor bicolor GÜNTHER 1868
Xenocalamus bicolor concavorostralis HOFFMAN 1940
Xenocalamus bicolor lineatus ROUX 1907
Xenocalamus bicolor machadoi LAURENT 1954
Xenocalamus bicolor maculatus FITZSIMONS 1937
Xenocalamus bicolor pernasutus (WERNER 1915) 
Common NamesSlender Quill-snouted Snake
bicolor: Bicoloured Quill-snouted Snake
australis: Waterberg Quill-snouted Snake
lineatus: Striped Quill-snouted Snake 
SynonymXenocalamus bicolor GÜNTHER 1868: 415
Xenocalamus bicolor — WELCH 1994: 125
Xenocalamus lineatus bicolor — JACOBSEN et al. 2010
Xenocalamus bicolor — GOWER et al. 2012: 115
Xenocalamus bicolor — WALLACH et al. 2014: 795
Amblyodipsas bicolor — FIGUEROA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Xenocalamus bicolor australis FITZSIMONS 1946
Xenocalamus bicolor australis FITZSIMONS 1946: 386
Xenocalamus bicolor australis — DE WITTE & LAURENT 1947
Xenocalamus bicolor australis — BROADLEY 1971: 675
Xenocalamus bicolor australis — BATES et al. 2014: 355

Xenocalamus bicolor bicolor GÜNTHER 1868
Xenocalamus bicolor bicolor — FITZSiMONS 1946
Xenocalamus bicolor bicolor — DE WITTE & LAURENT 1947
Xenocalamus bicolor bicolor — BROADLEY 1959
Xenocalamus bicolor — AUERBACH 1987: 174
Xenocalamus bicolor bicolor — BAUER et al. 1993
Xenocalamus bicolor bicolor — BATES et al. 2014: 354

Xenocalamus bicolor concavorostralis HOFFMAN 1940
Xenocalamus bicolor concavo-rostralis HOFFMAN 1940: 111
Xenocalamus bicolor concavo-rostralis — FITZSIMONS 1946
Xenocalamus bicolor concavo-rostralis — DE WITTE & LAURENT 1947

Xenocalamus bicolor lineatus ROUX 1907
Xenocalamus bicolor var. lineatus ROUX 1907
Xenocalamus bicolor lineatus — FITZSiMONS 1946
Xenocalamus bicolor lineatus — BROADLEY 1971: 681
Xenocalamus bicolor lineatus — SCHÄTTI 1985
Xenocalamus bicolor lineatus — PIETERSEN et al. 2013
Xenocalamus lineatus — BROADLEY & BLAYLOCK 2013
Xenocalamus lineatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 795
Xenocalamus bicolor lineatus — BATES et al. 2014: 355

Xenocalamus bicolor machadoi LAURENT 1954
Xenocalamus bicolor machadoi LAURENT 1954: 45
Xenocalamus bicolor machadoi — BROADLEY 1971: 680
Xenocalamus bicolor machadoi — MARQUES et al. 2018

Xenocalamus bicolor maculatus FITZSIMONS 1932
Xenocalamus bicolor maculatus FITZSIMONS 1932: 39
Xenocalamus bicolor maculatus — FITZSiMONS 1946
Xenocalamus bicolor maculatus — DE WITTE & LAURENT 1947

Xenocalamus bicolor pernasutus (WERNER 1915)
Michaela pernasuta WERNER 1915
Xenocalamus pernasuta — HEWITT 1926: 473
Xenocalamus bicolor pernasutus — FITZSiMONS 1946
Xenocalamus bicolor pernasutus — DE WITTE & LAURENT 1947 
DistributionAngola, W?/S Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Namibia, Botswana,
Republic of South Africa (N Cape, W OFS, Transvaal),
Mozambique, N Zimbabwe

australis: Transvaal (Waterberg District)

bicolor: Namibia, W/C Botswana, Republic of South Africa (N Cape Province, W Orange Free State), N Zimbabwe, C Mozambique

concavorostralis: Republic of South Africa; Type locality: “Kelly’s View, Bloemfontein”.

lineatus: S Mozambique, NE Transvaal, SE Zimbabwe

machadoi: Angola, W Zaire; Type locality: “Dundo” [= Kwanza Norte Province, northeastern Angola]  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesType: BMNH 1946.1.2.89 (and possibly additional specimens).
Holotype: MHNN [lineatus]
Holotype: TM 6275, adult female [australis]
Holotype: MD 2082 (collector A. Barros Machado) [machadoi] 
Diagnosis 
CommentVenomous!

Type species: Xenocalamus bicolor GÜNTHER 1868 is the type species of the genus Xenocalamus GÜNTHER 1868.

Phylogenetics: see Portillo et al. 2018 for a phylogenetic analysis of members of Aparallactinae, inlcuding members of Xenocalamus. Figueroa et al. 2016 synonymized Xenocalamus with Amblyodipsas although they only sampled Xenocalamus transvaalensis, hence we leave Xenocalamus for the time being. 
Etymology 
References
  • Auerbach, R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Bates, M. F. 1988. Geographical Distribution - Xenocalamus bicolor bicolor. J. Herp. Assoc. Africa (34): 50-50 - get paper here
  • Bates, M.F. 1991. A re-evaluation of the taxonomic status of Xenocalamus bicolor concavorostralis Hoffman, 1940 (Serpentes: Atractaspidinae). South African J Zoology 26 (2):78-81
  • Bates, M.F.; Branch, W.R., Bauer, A.M.; Burger, M., Marais, J.; Alexander, G.J. & de Villliers, M.S. (eds.) 2014. Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Suricata 1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, 512 pp.
  • Bauer, Aaron M.; Branch, William R. & Haacke, Wulf D. 1993. The herpetofauna of the Kamanjab area and adjacent Damaraland, Namibia. Madoqua (Windhoek) 18 (2): 117-145.
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Broadley, D. & Blaylock 2013. The Snakes of Zimbabwe and Botswana. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 387 pp. [book review in Sauria 35 (2): 59 and Copeia 2014: 388] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D. G. 1971. A revision of the African snake genera Amblyodipsas and Xenocalamus. Occ. Pap. natl. Mus. Rhod. B4 (33): 629-697
  • Broadley, D.G. 1959. The herpetology of Southern Rhodesia. Part I--the snakes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 120 (1): 1-100 [reprint 1972] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1998. The reptilian fauna of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa). In: Schmidt, K.P. and Noble, G.K., Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgian Congo... [reprint of the 1919 and 1923 papers]. SSAR Facsimile reprints in Herpetology, 780 pp.
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Figueroa A, McKelvy AD, Grismer LL, Bell CD, Lailvaux SP 2016. A Species-Level Phylogeny of Extant Snakes with Description of a New Colubrid Subfamily and Genus. PLoS One 11 (9): e0161070.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161070 - get paper here
  • FitzSimons, V. 1932. Preliminary descriptions of new forms of South African Reptilia and Amphibia, from the Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition, 1930. Ann. Transvaal Mus. 15 (1): 35-40 - get paper here
  • Fitzsimons, V. 1946. Notes on some African Snakes, including a discription of a new subspecies of Xenocalamus. Ann. Transvaal Mus. 20 (4): 379-394
  • Gower, D.; Garrett, K. & Stafford, P. 2012. Snakes. Firefly Books, Buffalo, NY,<br />144 p..
  • Günther, A. 1868. Sixth account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 1: 413-429 - get paper here
  • Herrmann, H.-W.; W.R. Branch 2013. Fifty years of herpetological research in the Namib Desert and Namibia with an updated and annotated species checklist. Journal of Arid Environments 93: 94–115 - get paper here
  • Hewitt, J. 1926. Some new or little-known reptiles and batrachians from South Africa. Annals of the South African Museum 20: 473—490
  • Hoffman, A.C. 1940. A new subspecies of Xenocalamus from Bloemfontein. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 1(11): 111–113
  • Jacobsen, Niels H.G.; Errol W. Pietersen & Darren W. Pietersen 2010. A preliminary herpetological survey of the Vilanculos Coastal Wildlife Sanctuary on the San Sebastian Peninsula, Vilankulo, Mozambique. Herpetology Notes 3: 181-193 - get paper here
  • Laurent, RAYMOND F. 1954. Reptiles et batraciens de la région de Dundo (Angola) (Deuxième note). Companhia de Diamantes de Angola (Diamang), Serviços Culturais, Publicações Culturais, No. 23: 37-84
  • Marques, Mariana P.; Luis M. P. Ceríaco , David C. Blackburn , and Aaron M. Bauer 2018. Diversity and Distribution of the Amphibians and Terrestrial Reptiles of Angola -- Atlas of Historical and Bibliographic Records (1840–2017). Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 4) 65: 1-501 (Supplement II)
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Pietersen, Darren W. Pietersen, Errol W. Haacke, Wulf D. 2013. First herpetological appraisal of the Parque Nacional de Banhine, Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History 3: 153-163 - get paper here
  • Portillo, F., Branch, W.R., Conradie, W., Rödel, M-O., Penner, J., Barej, M.F., Kusamba, C., Muninga, W.M., Aristote, M.M., Bauer, A.M., Trape, J-F., Nagy, Z.T., Carlino, P., Pauwels, O.S.G., Menegon, M., Burger, M., Mazuch, T., Jackson, K., Hughes, 2018. Phylogeny and biogeography of the African burrowing snake subfamily Aparallactinae (Squamata: Lamprophiidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner,F. 1915. Reptilia und Amphibia. In: Michaelsen,W.: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Land- und Süsswasserfauna Deutsch-Südwestafrikas III, pp. 325-376 - get paper here
  • Witte, G. F. de & LAURENT,R.F. 1947. Revision d'un groupe de Colubridae africains: genres Calamelaps, Miodon, Aparallactus, et formes affines. Mém. Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat. Belgique (sér. 2) 29: 1-134
 
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