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Xenopholis scalaris (WUCHERER, 1861)

IUCN Red List - Xenopholis scalaris - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesWucherer's Ground Snake 
SynonymElapomorphus scalaris WUCHERER 1861: 325
Elapomorphus scalaris WUCHERER 1862: 318
Xenopholis Braconnieri PETERS 1869: 441
Gerrhosteus prosopis COPE 1874: 71
Elapomorphus scalaris — STRAUCH 1884: 573
Sympeltophis ungalioides WERNER 1925: 52 (fide SMITH 1928)
Xenopholis scalaris — PETERS 1960
Xenopholis scalaris — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Xenopholis scalaris — BAUER et al. 1995: 75
Xenopholis scalaris — LEHR 2002: 98
Xenopholis scalaris — JANSEN et al. 2009
Xenopholis scalaris — WALLACH et al. 2014: 803 
DistributionBolivia (Amazonas), N Peru (Amazonas, Pasco etc.), Ecuador (Amazonas),
Brazil (Amazonas, Pará, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco), French Guiana [Vidal et al. 1998], Colombia, Venezuela

Type locality: Canavieras, Matta de Sao Joao, Brazil.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntype: BMNH 1946.1.8.60
Syntype: ANSP 11359; Peru, Nauta [prosopis] 
Diagnosis 
CommentSynonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. Not listed by GASC & RODRIGUES 1980. The photo labeled Xenopholis scalaris in CAMPBELL & LAMAR (2004) (an Amazonian species) actually shows X. undulatus.

Characteristics (genus): The most distinctive character of Xenopholis is their dorsally-expanded vertebrae (Boulenger 1896; Hoge and Federsoni 1975).

Type species: Elapomorphus scalaris WUCHERER 1861: 325 is the type species of the genus Xenopholis PETERS 1869. 
Etymology 
References
  • Avila-Pires, Teresa C.S.; Kleiton R. Alves-Silva, Laís Barbosa, Fabrício S. Correa, Jorge F. A. Cosenza, Ana Paula V. Costa-Rodrigues, Aurea A. Cronemberger, Marinus S. Hoogmoed, Geraldo R. Lima-Filho, Adriano O. Maciel, Alexandre F. R. Missassi, Lyw 2018. Changes in Amphibian and Reptile Diversity Over Time in Parque Estadual do Utinga, a Protected Area Surrounded by Urbanization Herpetology Notes 11: 499-512 - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Campbell, Jonathan A. and William W. Lamar 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere, 2 vols. Comstock (Cornell University Press), Ithaca, NY, 962 pp. [review in Science 305: 182]
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Claessen, Hugo 2005. De slangen van de Guyana's. Deel VIII. Lacerta 63 (4): 136-151 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1874. Description of some species of reptiles obtained by Dr. John F. Bransford, Assistant Surgeon United States Navy, while attached to the Nicaraguan surveying Expedition in 1873. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 26: 64-72 - get paper here
  • Cunha O R da ; do Nascimento F P; Sauer de Avila-Pires T C 1985. Os repteis da area de Carajas, Para, Brasil (Testudines e Squamata). 1. Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi PUBLICACOES AVULSAS (No. 40): 9-92 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 2005. Cusco Amazónico: The Lives of Amphibians and Reptiles in an Amazonian Rainforest. Comstock Pub Assoc.
  • Duellman, W.E., & Salas, A.W. 1991. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Cuzco Amazonico, Peru. Occas. Papers Mus. of Natur. Hist., Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (143): 13 pp. - get paper here
  • Duellman,W.E. & Mendelson III, J.R. 1995. Amphibians and reptiles from Northern Departamento Loreto, Peru: Taxonomy and Biogeography. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 55 (10): 329-376
  • Fraga R de, Stow AJ, Magnusson WE, Lima AP 2014. The Costs of Evaluating Species Densities and Composition of Snakes to Assess Development Impacts in Amazonia. PLoS One 9 (8): e105453. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105453 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de; Arthur Diesel Abegg, Iuri Ribeiro Dias, Elbano Paschoal de Figueiredo Moraes 2018. Herpetofauna from Serra da Jibóia, an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil Herpetology Notes 11: 59-72 - get paper here
  • Frota, J.G. da; Pedroso dos Santos-Jr, Alfredo; Menezes-Chalkidis, H. de & Guimarães Guedes, A. 2005. AS SERPENTES DA REGIÃO DO BAIXO RIO AMAZONAS, OESTE DO ESTADO DO PARÁ, BRASIL (SQUAMATA). Biociências 13 (2): 211-220
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Hamdan, Breno; Claudio Machado, Nathalie Kaladinsky Citeli 2015. Filling gaps and a new state record of Xenopholis scalaris (Wucherer, 1861) (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Check List 11 (5): 1746
  • JANSEN, MARTIN; LUCINDO GONZALES ÁLVAREZ & GUNTHER KÖHLER 2009. Description of a new species of Xenopholis (Serpentes: Colubridae) from the Cerrado of Bolivia, with comments on Xenopholis scalaris in Bolivia. Zootaxa 2222: 31-45 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2001. New records for amphibians and reptiles from Departamentos Pasco and Ucayali, Peru. Herpetological Review 32 (2): 130-132 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Mendes, Caio Vinicius De Mira, Renan Manoel De Oliveira, Danilo Silva Ruas, Iuri Ribeiro Dias and António Jorge Suzart Argólo. 2013. Xenopholis scalaris (Wucherer's ground snake) defensive behavior. Herpetological Review 44 (4): 699
  • Mendes-Pinto, T. J. & S. Marques de Souza 2011. Preliminary assessment of amphibians and reptiles from Floresta Nacional do Trairão, with a new snake record for the Pará state, Brazilian Amazon. Salamandra 47 (4): 199-206 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters , J. A. 1960. The snakes of Ecuador; check list and key. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 122: 489-541 - get paper here
  • Peters,W.C.H. 1869. Über neue Gattungen und neue oder weniger bekannte Arten von Amphibien (Eremias, Dicrodon, Euprepes, Lygosoma, Typhlops, Eryx, Rhynchonyx, Elapomorphus, Achalinus, Coronella, Dromicus, Xenopholis, Anoplodipsas, Spilotes, Tropidonotus). Monatsber. k. preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1869: 432-447 - get paper here
  • Ringler, Max; Eva Ursprung, Walter Hödl. 2010. Predation on Allobates femoralis (Boulenger 1884; Anura: Aromobatidae) by the colubrid snake Xenopholis scalaris (Wucherer 1861). Herpetology Notes 3: 301-304. - get paper here
  • Roberto, Igor Joventino; Cícero Ricardo de Oliveira, João Antonio de Araújo Filho, Herivelto Faustino de Oliveira, Robson Waldemar Ávila 2017. The herpetofauna of the Serra do Urubu mountain range: a key biodiversity area for conservation in the brazilian atlantic forest Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 57 (27): 347-373 - get paper here
  • Santos-Costa, Maria Cristina dos; Gleomar Fabiano Maschio, Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente 2015. Natural history of snakes from Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, eastern Amazonia, Brazil Herpetology Notes 8: 69-98 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1928. The status of some recently described genera and species of snakes. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 1: 494-496
  • Starace, Fausto 1995. Contribution to the study of the ophidians of French Guyana. Presence of a new colubrid in French Guyana, Xenopholis scalaris (Wuchener, 1861). Litteratura Serpentium 15 (6): 153-157
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Strauch,A. 1884. Bemerkungen über die Schlangengattung Elapomorphus aus der Familie der Calamariden. 2nd. Ed. Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg 29: 541-590 - get paper here
  • Vidal, Nicolas; de Massary, Jean-Christophe; Marty, Christian 1998. Nouvelles especes de serpents pour la Guyane francaise. Revue Française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie 25 (3-4): 131-134 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner. F. 1925. Neue oder wenig bekannte Schlangen aus dem Naturhistorischen Staatsmuseum in Wien. II. Teil. Sitzungsb. Akad. Wiss., Wien, Abt. l, 134: 45 - 66 - get paper here
  • Wucherer, Otho 1861. Description of the new species of Elapomorphus from Brazil. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1861: 325-326 - get paper here
  • Wucherer, Otho 1862. Description of a new species of Elapomorphus from Brazil. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 9: 318-319 - get paper here
 
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