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Alopoglossus avilapiresae RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, CHOUERI, LOBOS, VENEGAS, TORRES-CARVAJAL & WERNECK, 2020

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Higher TaxaAlopoglossidae, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymAlopoglossus avilapiresae RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, CHOUERI, LOBOS, VENEGAS, TORRES-CARVAJAL & WERNECK 2020
Alopoglossus angulatus RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR 2018: 32 (part) 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas, Acre), Colombia (Amazonas), Peru (Cusco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Puno and San Martín)

Type locality: Brazil, State of Amazonas, Maraã municipality, Amanã, Baré (2°28′54.95′′S, 64°42′36.98′′W)  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: INPA-H 9515, male, 5 February 2001, Ana Cristina de Oliveira Cordeiro Duarte, field number RCV 01-322 (Figs 12, 13).
Paratypes: Brazil: State of Amazonas: INPA-H 9514, Amanã, Baré (2°28′54.9′′S, 64°42′37′′W), 30 January 2001, Duarte, field number RCV 01-274; INPA-H 9394, Amanã, Boa Esperança (2°29′17.6′′S, 64°45′12.9′′W), 1 February 2001, Duarte, field number RCV 01-292; INPA-H 9382, Amanã, Boa Vista (2°20′32.7′′S, 64°51′33.8′′W), 12 January 2001, Duarte, field number RCV 01-74; INPA-H 11112, 11119, two females, Maraã, Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Paraná Trail (2°21′42.68′′S, 65°15′35.45′′W), 9 September 2003 and 6 September 2006, Bernhard.
 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Alopoglossus avilapiresae is distinguished from all other species of Alopoglossus by the combination of the following characters: (1) scales on the sides of the neck non-granular, keeled, imbricate (at least medial and posterior ones phylloid), in ten to 13 transverse rows; (2) three pairs of chin shields; (3) third pair of chin shields with rounded posterior margins, in direct contact with gulars or separated from them by a row of small scales; (4) absence of a pair of medial enlarged pregular scales; (5) scales on gular region subequal in size, but varying in shape: lateral ones strongly keeled, pointed, phylloid; anterior, medial and posterior ones feebly keeled, bluntly pointed; anteriormost transverse row with scales smooth, almost rounded posteriorly, and varying from similar in size to slightly smaller than those in the proceeding rows; (6) ventral scales mucronate, imbricate, with bluntly pointed posterior margins (almost rounded), varying from smooth to feebly keeled; (7) total number of femoral pores in males 23–29.

Comparison with other species: Alopoglossus avilapiresae differs from A. atriventris, A. buckleyi, A. copii, A. embera, A. festae, A. lehmanni and A. viridiceps (in parentheses) in having scales on the sides of the neck similar in shape to dorsals, non-granular, keeled, imbricate (granular in A. atriventris and A. buckleyi; mostly granular in A. embera, A. festae, A. lehmanni and A. viridiceps; conical with apparent bare skin between conical scales in A. copii); it also differs from A. embera, A. festae and A. viridiceps in not having gulars arranged in two longitudinal rows (vs. a double longitudinal row of widened gular scales); from A. lehmanni in having dorsal scales rhomboidal, in oblique rows (vs. dorsal scales hexagonal with parallel lateral edges, in transverse rows). Alopoglossus avilapiresae differs from A. amazonicus and A. meloi in having three pairs of chin shields (vs. four pairs), and the third pair of chin shields rounded medially and posteriorly, contacting gulars or separated from them by a row of small scales (vs. third pair of chin shields irregularly trapezoidal, separated from gulars by large scales). It differs from A. angulatus in having scales on sides of neck in ten to 13 transverse rows (vs. six to nine); from A. andeanus in lacking a pair of medial enlarged pregular scales; from A. carinicaudatus in having the third pair of chin shields rounded medially and posteriorly, contacting gulars or separated by a row of small scales [vs. third pair of chin shields irregularly quadrangular (anterior and posterior margins almost parallel) with straight posterior margins, separated from gulars by a row of small, granular scales in A. carinicaudatus], scales on medial gular region feebly keeled (vs. scales on medial gular region strongly keeled), and scales on anterior ventral region varying from smooth to feebly keeled (vs. scales on anterior ventral region strongly keeled). Alopoglossus avilapiresae differs from A. collii in having scales on sides of neck in ten to 13 transverse rows (vs. eight or nine) and total number of femoral pores 23–29 in males (vs. 19–22). 
CommentHabitat: leaf litter in montane, terra firme and flooded (varzea) forest. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a noun in the genitive case honoring Teresa Cristina Sauer de Ávila-Pires, in recognition of her valuable contribution to the knowledge of the Amazonian lizards. The first author of this study (M.A.R.-J.) expresses his great appreciation to T. Ávila- Pires for her valuable and constructive contribution to his personal and professional development. 
References
  • Ribeiro-Junior, M. A., Choueri, E., Lobos, S., Venegas, P., Torres-Carvajal, O. and Werneck, F. 2020. Eight in one: morphological and molecular analyses reveal cryptic diversity in Amazonian alopoglossid lizards (Squamata: Gymnophthalmoidea). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society - get paper here
 
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