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Alopoglossus carinicaudatus (COPE, 1876)

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Higher TaxaAlopoglossidae, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Northern Teiid 
SynonymLepidosoma carinicaudatum COPE 1876: 160
Leposoma carinicaudatum O’SHAUGHNESSY 1881: 233
Alopoglossus carinicaudatus — BOULENGER 1885: 384
Alopoglossus carinicaudatus — RUTHVEN 1924: 3
Pantodactylus carinicaudatus — BURT & BURT 1931: 358
Alopoglossus carinicaudatus — RUIBAL 1952: 508
Alopoglossus carinicaudatus — LEHR 2002: 202
Alopoglossus carinicaudatus — RODRIGUES et al. 2007
Alopoglossus angulatus — KÖHLER et al. 2012 (part.)
Alopoglossus angulatus — RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR 2018: 32 (part.)
Alopoglossus carinicaudatus — RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR et al. 2020: 27 
DistributionNE Ecuador (Napo, Pastaza, Orellana, Sucumbíos), N Peru (Loreto)

Type locality: “Marañon”; restricted to Valley of the Marañon River, Peru by Ruibal (1952) but later corrected and restricted to Santa Rosa de Otas, Department of Napo, Ecuador (upper Napo River; 0°58′41.2′′S, 77°27′4.4′′W, by RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR et al. 2020: 28.  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 11371, male 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Alopoglossus carinicaudatus is distinguished from all other species of Alopoglossus by the combination of the following characters: (1) scales on the sides of the neck non-granular, keeled, imbricate (at least medial and posterior ones phylloid), in 11 or 12 transverse rows; (2) three pairs of chin shields; (3) third pair of chin shields irregularly quadrangular (anterior and posterior margins almost parallel), with straight posterior margins, separated from gulars by a row of small scales; (4) absence of a pair of medial enlarged pregular scales; (5) scales on gular region subequal in shape and size: lateral, anterior, medial and posterior ones strongly keeled, pointed, phylloid; anteriormost transverse row feebly keeled; (6) ventral scales mucronate, imbricate, with bluntly pointed posterior margins, varying from strongly keeled on anterior and lateral surfaces to feebly keeled on medial and posterior surfaces; and (7) total number of femoral pores in males 22–26 (RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR et al. 2020: 28).

Comparison with other species (excluding Ptychoglossus): Alopoglossus carinicaudatus differs from A. atriventris, A. buckleyi, A. copii, A. embera, A. festae, A. lehmanni and A. viridiceps (in parentheses) in having scales on the sides of the neck similar in shape to dorsals, non- granular, keeled, imbricate (granular in A. atriventris and A. buckleyi; mostly granular in A. embera, A. festae, A. lehmanni and A. viridiceps; conical with apparent bare skin between conical scales in A. copii); it also differs from A. embera, A. festae and A. viridiceps in not having gulars arranged in two longitudinal rows (vs. a double longitudinal row of widened gular scales); from A. lehmanni in having dorsal scales rhomboidal, in oblique rows (vs. dorsal scales hexagonal with parallel lateral edges, in transverse rows). Alopoglossus carinicaudatus differs from A. angulatus, A. amazonius, A. andeanus, A. avilapiresae, A. collii and A. meloi in having the third pair of chin shields irregularly quadrangular (anterior and posterior margins almost parallel), with straight posterior margins, separated from gulars by a row of small scales (vs. third pair of chin shields with rounded posterior margins, in direct contact with gulars or separated from them by a row of small scales in A. angulatus, A. andeanus, A. avilapiresae and A. collii; third pair of chin shields irregularly trapezoidal, separated from gulars by large scales in A. amazonius and A. meloi), scales on gular region subequal in shape and size, with lateral, anterior, medial and posterior ones strongly keeled, pointed, phylloid (vs. scales on gular region subequal in size but varying in shape, with anterior, medial and posterior ones varying from smooth to feebly keeled, phylloid in A. angulatus and A. meloi; scales on gular region varying in shape and size, with posterior ones varying from smooth to feebly keeled, almost rounded, larger than lateral, anterior and medial ones in A. amazonius; scales on gular region varying in shape and size, with anterior, medial and posterior ones varying from smooth to feebly keeled, bluntly pointed, and medial and posterior ones larger than anterior and lateral ones in A. andeanus; scales on gular region subequal in size but varying in anterior shape, with medial and posterior ones feebly keeled, bluntly pointed in A. avilapiresae; scales on gular region varying in shape and size, with medial and posterior ones smooth, almost rounded, bluntly pointed, larger than lateral ones in A. collii) and in having ventral scales strongly keeled on anterior region (vs. anterior ventral scales varying from feebly keeled to smooth on all other species). It also differs from A. angulatus in having scales on the sides of the neck in 11 or 12 transverse rows (vs. six to nine); from A. amazonicus and A. meloi in having three pairs of chin shields (vs. four pairs); from A. andeanus by lacking a pair of medial enlarged pregular scales; and from A. collii in having scales on the sides of the neck in 11or 12 transverse rows (vs. eight or nine) (RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR et al. 2020: 28).
CommentSynonymy: partly after RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR et al. 2020: 27. Hoogmoed 1973 resurrected Lacerta angulata, as Alopoglossus angulatus, and placed A. carinicaudatus in its synonymy.

Distribution: see maps in KÖHLER et al. 2012, RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR 2018: 33 (Fig. 5), RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR et al. 2020: 39 (Fig. 20).

Habitat: leaf litter of lowland tropical forest, often near water. 
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