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Ameiva atrigularis GARMAN, 1887

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Venezuelan Ameiva, Giant Ameiva, Amazon Racerunner
S: Mato, azulejo 
SynonymAmeiva surinamensis var. atrigularis GARMAN 1887
Ameiva atrigularis — BARBOUR & NOBLE 1915: 460
Ameiva ameiva melanocephala BARBOUR & NOBLE 1915: 465
Ameiva atrigularis — BURT & BURT 1931: 307
Ameiva ameiva ameiva — MARCUZZI 1950: 101 (part.)
Ameiva ameiva — ROZE 1964: 237
Ameiva ameiva melahocephala — DONOSO-BARROS (1968: 115; part; in error)
Ameiva ameiva melanocephala — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 19
Ameiva ameiva atrigularis — TUCK & HARDY 1973: 241
Ameiva ameiva — MURPHY 1997: 152
Ameiva ameiva — GORZULA & SENARIS 1999: 148 (part.)
Ameiva ameiva — RIVAS et al. (2005: 351)
Ameiva ameiva — UGUETO & RIVAS 2010: 187
Ameiva atrigularis — UGUETO & HARVEY 2011 
DistributionVenezuela (Distrito Capital, Vargas, Miranda, Sucre, Peninsula de Paria, Isla de Margarita), Trinidad

Type locality: Trinidad
Type locality: Cumanacoa, Venezuela [melanocephala]  
TypesLectotype: MCZ 186018, male; designated by UGUETO & HARVEY 2011; paralectotypes: ANSP 19596, USNM 120777, NMW
Holotype: MCZ 9993, male [melanocephala] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis.—A medium-sized Ameiva distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) maximum SVL in males 186 mm; (2) dorsal head scales smooth; (3) frontal single; (4) frontoparietal and parietal plates in contact with interparietals; (5) 17–47 (both sides) scales, usually in single row, between supraoculars and supraciliaries; (6) 10–18 occipitals, usually larger than first dorsal row; (7) 20–40 anterior gulars; (8) middle anterior gulars polygonal or rounded and usually small or moderately enlarged; (9) posterior gulars usually small, less often with medial patch of moderately enlarged posterior gulars; (10) 13–23 posterior gulars between antegular and gular fold; (11) enlarged mesop- tychial scales subequal or larger than largest gulars; (12) postbrachials moderately to dis- tinctly enlarged; (13) 263–361 scales between occiput and rump; (14) 134–179 dorsal scales across midbody; (15) ventrals in 29–34 trans- verse and 10 longitudinal rows; (16) adult male coloration in life uniformly brown in northeast- ern Venezuela, Isla de Margarita, and Trinidad or bicolored (anteriorly brown and posteriorly green) in north-central Venezuela, usually with minute black dorsal reticulations and pale blue or whitish lateral ocelli; (17) throat in adults black or dark gray; (18) no vertebral light stripe and only rarely ocelli present on dorsum; (19) juveniles often with faded dorsal paired black spots, indistinct pale dorsolateral line bordering upper margin of broad black lateral stripe distinct in front of arm; (20) associated with forests or forest clearings [UGUETO & HARVEY 2011]. 
CommentSynonymy after UGUETO & HARVEY 2011. Amiva [sic] surinamensis tobaganus COPE 1879: 276 used to be treated as a synonym of A. atrigularis but has been considered as a valid species by more recent authors.

Distribution: Esqueda et al. (2001) reported a specimen of A. a. melanocephala (= A. atrigularis) from Sierra de Perijá, Zulia. However, this record was based on a misidentified specimen of A. praesignis. Esqueda et al. (2001) reported another A. a. melanocephala from Puerto Cabello, Carabobo State, which needs to be confirmed. 
  • Auguste, Renoir J. 2019. Herpetofaunal checklist for six pilot protected areas in Trinidad and Tobago. Herpetology Notes 12: 577-585 - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. and G. K. Noble. 1915. A revision of the lizards of the genus Ameiva. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 59: 417-479. - get paper here
  • Burt,C.E. & Burt,M.D. 1931. South American lizards in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History. Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 61 (7): 227-395
  • Garman, S. 1887. On the West Indian Teiids in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Bull. Essex Inst. 19: 1-12. - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Morato, Sérgio Augusto Abrahão; Guilherme Nunes Ferreira; Michela Rossane Cavilha Scupino (eds.) 2018. Herpetofauna da Amazônia Central: Estudos na FLONA de Saracá-Taquera. Curitiba, Pr: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas, Pa: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A., 2018.<br />210p. - get paper here
  • Murphy, J.C. 1997. Amphibians & Reptiles of Trinidad & Tobago. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida, 304 pp. [book review in Salamandra 36 (2): 142]
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • Rivas Fuenmayor, Gilson and Cesar Luis Barrio Amorós 2005. New Amphibian and Reptile records from Cojedes State, Venezuela. Herpetological Review 36 (2):205-209. - get paper here
  • Roze, J.A. 1964. La herpetologia de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela. Soc. de Cienc. Natur. 'La Salle', Caracas, Mem. 24(69): 209-241.
  • Señaris, J. Celsa; María Matilde Aristeguieta Padrón, Haidy Rojas Gil y Fernando J. M. Rojas-Runjaic 2018. Guía ilustrada de los anfibios y reptiles del valle de Caracas, Venezuela. Ediciones IVIC, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC). Caracas, Venezuela. 348 pp.
  • Tuck, Robert G.;Hardy, Jerry David 1973. Status of the Ober Tabago collection, Smithsonian Institution, and the proper allocation of Ameiva surinamensis tobaganus Cope (Sauria: Teiidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 86 (19): 231-242 - get paper here
  • Ugueto, Gabriel N.; and Michael B. Harvey 2011. Revision of Ameiva ameiva Linnaeus (Squamata: Teiidae) in Venezuela: Recognition of Four Species and Status of Introduced Populations in Southern Florida, USA. Herpetological Monographs 25 (1): 112-170 - get paper here
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