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Amphisbaena fuliginosa LINNAEUS, 1758

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Higher TaxaAmphisbaenidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAmphisbaena fuliginosa fuliginosa LINNAEUS 1758
Amphisbaena fuliginosa amazonica VANZOLINI 1951
Amphisbaena fuliginosa bassleri VANZOLINI 1951
Amphisbaena fuliginosa varia LAURENTI 1768
Amphisbaena fuliginosa wiedi VANZOLINI 1951 
Common NamesE: Speckled Worm Lizard
D: Gefleckte Doppelschleiche
NL: Gevlekte wormhagedis
E: Mottled Amphisbaena [bassleri]
Portuguese: Cobra-de-Duas-Cabeças-Pintada 
SynonymAmphisbaena fuliginosa LINNAEUS 1758: 229
Amphisbaena vulgaris LAURENTI 1768: 66
Amphisbaena magnifica LAURENTI 1768: 66
Amphisbaena flava LAURENTI 1768: 67
Amphisbaena fuliginosa — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 480
Amphisbaena americana GRAY 1844: 70
Amphisbaena fuliginosa — GÜNTHER 1885: 31
Amphisbaena fuliginosa — DUELLMAN 1978: 224
Amphisbaena fuliginosus — GOTCH 1986: 119
Amphisbaena fuliginosa — STARACE 1998: 53
Amphisbaena fuliginosa — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Amphisbaena fuliginosa fuliginosa — VANZOLINI 2002
Amphisbaena fuliginosa — GANS 2005: 14

Amphisbaena fuliginosa amazonica VANZOLINI 1951: 62
Amphisbaena fuliginosa amazonica — GANS 1967: 71
Amphisbaena fuliginosa amazonica — VANZOLINI 2002
Amphisbaena amazonica — GANS 2005: 10
Amphisbaena amazonica — RIBEIRO et al. 2008
Amphisbaena amazonica — VAZ-SILVA et al. 2015

Amphisbaena fuliginosa bassleri VANZOLINI 1951: 61
Amphisbaena fuliginosa bassleri — GANS 1967: 70
Amphisbaena fuliginosa bassleri — DIXON & SOINI 1975
Amphisbaena fuliginosa bassleri — VANZOLINI 2002
Amphisbaena bassleri — GANS 2005: 11
Amphisbaena bassleri — RIBEIRO et al. 2008
Amphisbaena bassleri — TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2019
Amphisbaena bassleri —

Amphisbaena fuliginosa varia LAURENTI 1768
Amphisbaena varia LAURENTI 1768: 66
Amphisbaena fuliginosa varia — GANS 1967: 70
Amphisbaena fuliginosa varia — VANZOLINI 2002
Amphisbaena varia — GANS 2005: 20
Amphisbaena fuliginosa varia — CARRERA et al. 2009
Amphisbaena varia — TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2019

Amphisbaena fuliginosa wiedi VANZOLINI 1951: 62
Amphisbaena fuliginosa wiedi — VANZOLINI 2002
Amphisbaena wiedi — GANS 2005: 21
Amphisbaena wiedi — RIBEIRO et al. 2008
Amphisbaena fuliginosa wiedi — NOGUEIRA-COSTA et al. 2013 
DistributionColombia (incl. Valle del Cauca, Caldas [F. Cast, pers. comm. 23 Aug 2017), Venezuela (Falcon, Trinidad), Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Trinidad, Brazil (Ceará), Peru (Manu NP)

Type locality: “America”

amazonica: Brazil (Para, Amazonas, etc.), Colombia (Amazon Valley from Manaus up to Letiçia, Colombia); Type locality: "Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil."

bassleri: Peru (Tambopata, Madre de Dios: [HR 31: 188]), Ecuador, Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz), and the Ucayali River valley up to the upper Amazon in Loreto, Argentina (Chaco Austral (Serie, 1915)); Type locality: "Roaboya, Loreto, Peru."

varia: Panama, Colombia southward to near Villavicencio; southwestward to Ecuador and eastward to Venezuela near
Trinidad; Brazil (Pará: [HR 31: 253], Goiás); Type locality: "America" = Panama (cf. Vanzolini, 1951: 59).

wiedii: Brazil (lower Amazon, Goias, Minas Gerais); Type locality: "Santa Maria, Baia, Brasil."  
TypesSyntypes: NRM (Stockholm Museum), ZMUU (Uppsala Museum, Andersson, 1899: 7).
Holotype: IBSP (= IB) 674 [amazonica]
Holotype: AMNH 56606. A specimen from Argentina is in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales in Buenos Aires [bassleri]
Neotype: MCZ 22070 (Barro Colorado Island, Panama, Canal Zone), (designated by Vanzolini, 1951: 61); apparently no Holotype has been designated [varia]
Holotype: AMNH 1091 [wiedi] 
CommentSynonymy mostly after GANS 1967 and GANS 2005. Although recent authors considered the various subspecies as valid species their status seems to be poorly supported. Some authors suggest to retain them as subspecies or synonyms of A. fuliginosa (e.g. M. Hoogmoed, pers. comm. 1 Nov 2016, 24 July 2017).

Distribution: records from areas outside the given distribution have been assigned to forms that were considered as subspecies previously,i.e. records from Panama, Peru (Tambopata, Madre de Dios: [HR 31: 188]), Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil (Pará: [HR 31: 253], Goiás), Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz). A. bassleri is not listed for Argentina by Avila et al. 2013, Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238. A. varia is not listed for Venezuela by RIVAS et al. 2012.

Type species: Amphisbaena fuliginosa is the type species of the genus Amphisbaena LINNAEUS 1758.

Diagnoses: Table SI in Costa et al. 2015 has morphological diagnostic characters of two-pored and three-pored South American Amphisbaena species (but not A. fuliginosa s.l.).

Phylogenetics: for a phylogenetic analysis of the genus (and actually of most Amphisbaenians) see Graboski et al 2022.

Species IDs: amazonica: 10458, bassleri: 10467, varia: 10555, wiedi: 10557.

Key: Torres-Ramírez et al. 2021 provide a key to the 6 species of Amphisbaena and Mesobaena in Colombia. 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin adjective “fuliginosus” meaning brown or dark brown colouration.

The genus is named after the Greek “amphis” (ἄμφίσ), ‘on both side’ and “baino” (βαίνω), ‘to go’, Greek ἀμφίσβαινα, then Latinized amphisbaena, literally animal
that ‘moves in both directions’; ‘double headed snake’ according to Pliny the elder (Liber 8.35).

amazonica: named after its type locality in the Amazon. 
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